Posts Tagged ‘Jim Hall’

(B D’Olivo)

Jim Hall and his Chaparral 2G Chev look surreal juxtaposed against the Mojave Desert, Stardust GP, Las Vegas in November 1967…

Other worldly really, which of course they were. Like so many of us outside North America i missed the Can Am but have always been fascinated by it. One of THE great racing categories ever with some marvellous circuits, Bridghampton for me the most photogenic and Las Vegas the least. But not this monochrome, sundown shot by Bob D’Olivo which has a magic, eerie, feel to it. Hall failed to finish the race won by John Surtees’ Lola T70 Mk3B Chev.

Wings were well and truly a Chaparral paradigm by then, it wasn’t until 1968 they appeared in Grand Prix racing.

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Chap 2G Chev, Road America pitlane September 1967. Jim Hall, Q7 and 4th in the race won by Denny Hulme’s McLaren M6A Chev. First race of the ’67 Can Am. The Papaya McLaren era is underway (D Friedman)

I wonder if the demonstrable pace of the winged 2F’s throughout Europe in 1967, campaigning in the World Manufacturers Championship effectively forced other designers to look at an area of aerodynamics they didn’t understand? That is, they could be ignored in the US as some sort of big car Can Am aberration, but the monthly sight of the things on ‘your own doorstep’ performing so well, if somewhat unreliably, forced a closer look. Check out my 2F article;

https://primotipo.com/2015/05/22/chaparral-2f-chev/

And so it was that wings flourished unfettered in F1 during 1968. And were then reigned back in after CSI dictates over the 1969 Monaco GP weekend in response to some appalling engineering, make that under-engineering of said wing support structures.

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Series of body and aero shots of the Chap 2G at Road America (D Friedman)

Innovation is such an interesting thing. I mean that literally. Stuff being different to an existing paradigm makes it interesting because of its difference. Same, same, is boring doncha reckon?

We don’t get a lot of innovation in most of our motor racing classes these days, be it single-seaters, sportscars, or ‘taxis’. The rules either mitigate against it or mandate conformity of approach. Not least in F1. Often such rule changes or evolution has occurred to ‘contain costs’ and ‘ensure the drivers can compete on equal terms’. Who says that the latter is a good idea other than in the most junior of formulae where history tells us that uniformity of core package has worked well.

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Jim Hall, Road America, September ’67 (D Friedman)

The funny thing about Jim Hall, Chaparral and innovation is that the powers that be were happy to allow their creativity to run free whilst the cars weren’t race winners. But when they were, or appeared to be, with the 1970 2J ‘Sucker’ it was legislated out of existence. So, in that sense we can be thankful that Jim, Hap, and Phil didn’t win more races or perhaps these wonderful cars may have been restricted by the intervention of vested interests of the paradigm much earlier!

God bless the innovators though, we need some. Now. And rules that allow differences of approach. Times are more complex than the sixties though. My polemic on F1 a while back supported innovation amongst other changes but how can it be afforded?

https://primotipo.com/2017/08/31/halos-are-a-brilliant-f1-idea-so-too-is-to-get-rid-of-those-dangerous-open-exposed-wheels/

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Chap 2G looks as modern as tomorrow- as a reference point one needs to look at its sportscar and single-seater peers. Road Am ’67. Aluminium monocoque 2C based chassis. Engine aluminium 427 cid Chev 90 degree, pushrod OHV injected V8, circa 525 bhp @ 6000 rpm. Chaparral/GM 3 speed ‘automatic’ transaxle, circa 780 kg (D Friedman)

Jim’s wings, automatic gearboxes and fibreglass monocoques were relatively simple (but very clever) whereas innovation now, will probably involve ‘power units’ of massive complexity and cost akin to the current ones used in the highly restricted and complex F1. Which means major manufacture involvement and resultant ‘winners and losers’, ‘haves and have nots’ in terms of the approaches which are successful and those which are dogs. Teams ability to afford such equipment is an issue with potential impacts on grid size.

But that’s probably a good thing, smaller more interesting grids of different looking and sounding cars has to be preferable to the highly contrived, boring sameness we see now?

Anyway, here is to innovators, god bless em…

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Exquisite detail wherever you look, 2G cockpit, Road Am ’67 (D Friedman)

Photo Credits…

Bob D’Olivo, Dave Friedman

Tailpiece: Truly wild in profile, Chaparral 2G Chev, Road America, 3 September 1967…

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(D Friedman)

 

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Jim Hall and Innes Ireland chewing the fat, no doubt swapping notes on the setup of their British Racing Partnership Lotus 24 BRM’s…

The Texan took a sabbatical from his growing Chaparral Sports Car program program at home to sharpen his skills in Grand Prix racing, fortunately for motor racing innovation he decided to focus more on the engineering aspects of his programs than his driving, having said that he was a driver of absolute world class, perhaps losing his ultimate edge after his big CanAm shunt late in 1968.

Ireland, the more experienced driver and a Grand Prix winner qualified an excellent 5th, DNF after an accident, Hall qualified 13th and retired on lap 20 with gearbox failure.

Graham Hill won the first of his 5 Monaco victories after Clarks’ Lotus 25 Climax gearbox locked. Richie Ginther, Hills’ teammate was second in another BRM P57 with Bruce McLaren 3rd in a Cooper T66 Climax.

Jim Clark won the drivers championship in the Lotus 25 Climax in 1963, Halls’ best results a 5th and 6th in Germany and Britain respectively. For Ireland, 4ths in both Holland and Italy yielded 6 championship points, 3 in total for Hall.

Hall had the ability to continue in Grand Prix racing but committed to the Chaparral programs in the domestic US sports car series which would become the CanAm Championship, and two fabulous years when his innovative cars wowed fans globally in the World Sports Car Championship in 1966 and 1967.

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Jim Hall cruising thru the Nurburgring paddock, German GP 1963. Lotus 24 BRM (unattributed)

 

jim hall mexico 1963

Jim Hall 8th in the 1963 Mexican GP, Lotus 24 BRM. Race won by Jim Clark, Lotus 25 Climax. (The Cahier Archive)

Credits…

The Cahier Archive

 

 

 

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John Surtees clipping the apex in Mexico in his North American Racing Team ‘NART’, factory, Ferrari 158. Ferrari was in dispute with the Italian national automobile club over its refusal to homologate his 250LM sportscar into Group 5 despite having not built the minimum number of cars to do so…the hissy-fit reflected in the cars being entered in the blue/white of Luigi Chinettis’ American NART rather than Italian national red…(Bernard Cahier)

John Surtees pilots his ‘NART’ Ferrari 158 to second place in the 1964 Mexican Grand Prix, clinching the drivers World Championship for him and the Constructors Championship for Ferrari…

On the day that Lewis Hamilton won the 2014 Championship i was flicking through some old magazines and reflected on the remarkably diverse career and achievements of Surtees.

In similar fashion to 2014 the 1964 title was also decided at the last race, in Mexico that year.

Graham Hill, Jim Clark and Surtees were all winners depending upon who finished where. In a race of changing fortunes Clark lead from the start, and was on track for the race win and his second title when his Climax engine started to lose oil and seized seven laps from the end. Surtees engine misfired early but sorted itself, teammate Bandini allowed him into second and the points he needed to defeat Hill, who had been given a ‘tap up the chuff’ by Bandini earlier in the race, causing a pitstop and damaged exhausts ruining his chance.

Mexico 1964, Surtees and Bandini

Surtees in his Fazz 158 ahead of teammate Bandini in the flat-12 1512 early in the Mexican GP (unattributed)

Dan Gurney won the race in his Brabham BT7 Climax and Surtees the title. He was to win only six Championship GP’s throughout his long career, 1960-1972, not reflective of his talent, but indicative of team choice, he wasn’t always in the right place at the right time.

Drivers Mexico 1964

Gurney, Clark, Surtees, pensive as always and Phil Hill prior to the ’64 Mexican GP. Looks like Brabhams’ haircut behind Clark? (Bernard Cahier)

Famously the only driver to win World Championships on two wheels and four… he was born into a motor-cycling family and progressed from his fathers’ sidecar to solos and many Norton victories, before too long signed by Count Agusta to MV.

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Surtees bump starts his MV350 prior to the start of his run around the daunting Isle of Man, Senior TT 1957 (unattributed)

The departure of Gilera and Moto Guzzi allowed Surtees and MV to dominate the bigger classes, he won 350cc titles in 1958/9/60 and 500cc championships in 1956/8/9/60.

Before too long he wanted to race cars, making his GP debut for Team Lotus at Monaco in 1960, he mixed cars and bikes that year his best result second in the British GP.

Surtees on the road Riverside 1960

Surtees being blown off by a Ford Fairlane…on the way back from Riverside, USGP practice 1960. Lotus 18 Climax. 2.5 FPF Climax an incredibly tractable engine! (Bernard Cahier)

Surtees Portuguese GP 1960

Surtees made his F1 debut with Lotus at Monaco 1960, mixing a season of F1 with winning the 350 & 500 titles on bikes…here at Oporto in the Portuguese GP, he retired on lap 36 having qualified on pole on this challenging road course. Lotus 18 Climax (Bernard Cahier)

He drove a Reg Parnell/Bowmaker racing Cooper in 1961 and a Parnell/Bowmaker Lola in 1962 commencing a relationship with Eric Broadley’s marque which continued for most of his career in categories outside F1…although the F1 Honda of 1967 was famously a ‘Hondola’, being the marriage of in essence the Lola T80/90 chassis with the big, powerful 3 litre Honda V12.

Surtees AGP WF 1963

John in the Lola Mk4A Climax enroute to 2nd behind Jack Brabhams’ Brabham BT4, both 2.7 Coventry Climax FPF powered. Australian GP, Warwick Farm, Sydney 1963 (John Ellacott)

The most productive phase of his career was with Ferrari from 1963 to mid 1966, winning in both sports cars and in F1…

The Palace Coup and Purge of key Ferrari staff in late 1962 gave Surtees his Ferrari chance, joining them in early 1963. Arguably he was a good chance for the 1966 Championship won by Jack Brabham but inept, political management by team-manager Eugenio Dragoni resulted in his departure from the team mid season, his talents rewarded with two wins for Cooper that season, he then moved to Honda.

Its ironic that Ferrari intrigue gave him his Ferrari chance, and Ferrari intigue got the better of his sense of fairness in the end…read the Motor Sport article below for Surtees’ own version of these events.

Surtees and Hill Monaco 1963

Surtees (4th) leads Graham Hill (1st) at Monaco 1963, Ferrari T56 and BRM P57 respectively (unattributed)

Forghieri and Surtees Ferrari 1512

Surtees looks typically concerned, there are not too many smiley shots of ‘Big John’, this was a serious business and all too often he was far from happy with his mount! Mauro Forghieri adjusts his ‘wedding tackle’. Ferrari 1512 1965, circuit unknown…look at all those coils trying to spark the high revving 1.5 litre flat 12. Technically interesting car with the 180 degree flat-12 used as a stressed member, years before the much touted Lotus 43/49 deployed the technique in 1966/7 respectively. Look closely and you can see the engine attachment point to the cast rear chassis bulkhead. Chassis still semi-monocoque tho. And lovely V12 still a 2 valve engine, rev limit and higher-frictional losses of the 12 and power developed  did not outweigh its complexity and higher fuel consumption relative to the 158 V8 in 1964. By the end of 1965 Surtees considered the car to have a decisive advantage over any other car but time had run out…Ferrari expected the 1.5 F1 to continue on, this engine needed to peak 12 months earlier than it did. Ferrari won no GP’s in 1965, Lotus and BRM had the edge that year. (unattributed)

Ferrari 158 cutaway

Surtees 1964 championship winning Ferrari 158. Chassis semi-monocoque, aluminium panels welded to tubular steel frame. IFS front by top rocker, lower wishbone and coil/spring shock unit. Rear by single top link, inverted lower wishbone, twin radius rods and coil spring/damper units.Adjustable roll-bars front and rear. Dunlop disc brakes , 468 Kg total. Engine ‘Tipo 205B’ 1489cc 90 degree all alloy V8. Chain driven DOHC, 2 valves per cylinder. Twin plugs fired by Marelli coils (4) and distributor. Bosch direct fuel injection, 10.5:1 compression ratio, circa 220bhp @ 11000rpm. 5 speed transaxle with ratios to choice,’slippery diff’ (Bruno Betti)

Surtees Spa 1966

John avoided the multiple spins and accidents caused by the lap 1 deluge of the Belgian GP at Spa in 1966, winning the race. He was shortly to walk out of the team and with that action ended his, and Ferraris’ hopes of a World Championship that year. Camera crew handily placed on the Eau Rouge apex… (unattributed)

Surtees Ferrari 312 Monza 1966

Happy JS testing his F1 Ferrari 312 at Monza in 1966 before the Monza 1000Km race. Cars behind are Ferraris’; Dino 206S and P3. The event was in April ’66, Surtees had a win in a P3 partnered by Mike Parkes…Bandini in the drivers overalls and brown sweater ? (unattributed)

1966 was capped with a dominant win in the first CanAm Championship in his self-run Team Surtees Lola T70Mk2 Chev, defeating Mark Donohue in a similar car and Bruce McLarens’ own M1B Chev…the McLaren CanAm steamroller commenced the following year.

Las Vegas Can Am 1966

John Surtees in his Lola T70 Mk2 Chev leads the field into turn 1 at ‘Stardust International Raceway’, Las Vegas 1966. The hi-winged Chaparral 2E Chev’s of Jim Hall and Phil Hill stand out. #98 is Parnelli Jones, #18 behind Hill George Follmer, #43 Jackie Stewart and #6 Mark Donohue are all in Lola T70 Chevs. #4, 5 , 88 are McLaren, Amon and Masten Gregory all driving McLaren M1B Chevs…Surtees victorious that year in a field of great depth (unattributed)

The Honda RA273 was a big heavy car, the marriage of Lola chassis and Honda engine, the RA300, was more competitive winning Surtees his sixth and final Championship Grand Prix victory at Monza in 1967, just pipping Jack Brabham in a last corner tactical battle/sprint to the line.

Surtees South Africa 1967

Surtees in his Honda RA300, the big V12 ahead of Graham Hills’ Lotus 49 Ford. Clarks’ Lotus 49 won the race, his last GP victory. Surtees 8th, Hill 2nd Kyalami , South Africa 1968 (unattributed)

Honda withdrew from F1 to reappear in the 1980’s, Surtees F1 season with BRM in 1969 was a poor one, the Tony Southgate designed BRM P153/180 were competitive cars but John was a season too early…

Surtees BRM 1969 Spanish GP

JS 5th in the 1969 Spanish GP but 6 laps behind winner Stewarts’ Matra Ford in a debacle of a race when Rindt/Hill Lotus 49’s lost their rear wings…hi-wings banned at Monaco several weeks later. BRM P138. (unattributed)

Chaparral 2H Laguna 1969

The truly wild Chaparral 2H Chev 1969, Surtees wrestling with the beast at Laguna Seca. An article in itself deserved on this car, composite chassis, low, low driving position, raised at Surtees insistence, De Dion rear suspension and more…here in search of downforce with what, even by Jim Halls’ standards, is a BIG WING! (unattributed)

His 1969 Chapparral CanAm season was even worse, Jim Halls 2H Chev an extraordinary car of immense innovation, but was totally uncompetitive, despite the best efforts of development of both Hall and Surtees. The 2J ‘ground effect sucker car’ of 1970 was even more avant garde…and competitive but Jim Hall and Surtees was not ‘a marriage made in heaven’, a second season was not going to happen.

Jim Hall and Surtees Can Am 1969

Communication breakdown…Jim Hall and Surtees, Edmonton Can Am 1969, John in the seat of the recalcitrant, avant garde Chaparral 2H Chev. Franz Weis looks on (unattributed)

Surteees Nurburgring 1970 Ferrari 512S

All is forgiven…back in Scuderia Ferrari in the 1970 512S squad…here at the Nurburgring in front of the much more nimble and victorious Porsche 908/3 of  Elford/Ahrens. John was teamed with Niño Vaccarella, they finished 3rd. (unattributed)

It was time to control his own destiny, build his own cars which he started to do with the Len Terry designed TS5 F5000 car in 1969…the Surtees TS7 Ford F1 machine made its debut in Johns’ hands in 1970.

Surtees Cars won the European F2 Championship with the works TS10 Ford driven by Mike Hailwood and the 1972 US ‘L&M’ F5000 Championship, Sam Posey driving a TS11 Chev.

john surtess

Surtees in his own TS8 Chev F5000 car Australian GP 1971, Warwick Farm. He was running second behind Frank Matich’ winning Matich A50 Repco, then had a puncture DNF. Here he is leading Max Stewart’s 2 litre Mildren Waggott DNF engine. (Dick Simpson)

In F1 the cars were competitive over the years, the TS19 ‘Durex franger’ sponsored chassis of 1976-7 perhaps the pick of them albeit results were still not great, John finally gave up due to the difficulty in funding in 1978.

Surtees retired from F1 as a driver after the Italian GP, Monza 1972, fitting as it was the scene of his final championship F1 victory in 1967. He was competitive to the end winning two F2 races in his Surtees TS10 Ford that year. He continued to test the F1 cars, much to the annoyance of some of his drivers who would have preferred the ‘seat time’ themselves…

He is now 80 years old, happy in retirement and still a respected commentator on the current scene…

Surtees Italian GP 1972

John Surtees contesting his final GP, Monza 1972 is his TS14 Ford. He retired on lap 7 with fuel vaporisation problems, teammate and fellow ex-motor cycle champion Mike Hailwood finished second in his Surtees TS9B Ford..his and the marques best ever championship result. Emerson Fittipaldi won the race and the Championship in his Lotus 72 Ford (unattributed)

Etcetera…

Motor Sport

Read this fantastic article, John Surtees on working with the ‘Italian Racing Aristocrats’, Count Agusta and Commendatore Ferrari…

http://www.motorsportmagazine.com/archive/article/august-2009/46/count-and-commendatore

Read this fantastic article on the Surtees Racing Car marque…

http://www.motorsportmagazine.com/halloffame/john-surtees/keeping-the-name-alive/

Surtees and Count Agusta

Signing on the dotted line for MV, a very youthful JS, 22 years old, with Count Agusta 1956 (unattributed)

Surtees Longford

Winning the ‘South Pacific International’, Longford, Tasmania, Australia March 1962. The ‘Yeoman Credit’ Cooper T53 Climax 2.7 is exiting the Viaduct. He beat Jack Brabham and Bib Stillwell also in Coopers (Keverell Thompson)

Enzo, Surtees and Ferrari 158 Modena

Enzo Ferrari, John Surtees with crossed arms in the driving suit behind him. Surtees grumpy, perhaps early tests of the 158 at Modena are not going well…(Bernard Cahier)

Surtees and Bandini Monaco 1965

Love this shot of Surtees in his Ferrari 158 chasing teammate Bandini in a 1512 in the 1965 Monaco GP. Bandini 2nd, Surtees 4th and out of fuel, Hill victorious in his BRM P261 (Rainer Schlegelmilch)

Surtees pits Can Am 1966

Team Surtees 1966 CanAm Champions…the way it was. Racer, truck, mechanics, driver, ‘works car’ and a series win! Surtees supervising @ rear, circuit anyone? (unattributed)

Surtees and McLaren Can Am 1966

John Surtees ahead of Bruce McLaren, Lola T70 Mk 2 and McLaren M1B, both Chev powered. St Jovite Can Am Canada 1966 (unattributed)

Lola T100 Surtees

Testing ! the Lola T100 Ford FVA F2 car at the Nurburgring, 1967 (Alexandre Willerding)

Surtees TS7 Ford cutaway drawing

Surtees TS7 Ford, JS 1970 & 1971 F1 contender. A well executed ‘Cosworth kit car’ of the period, general layout by JS, detail design by Peter Connew and Shabab Ahmed. Aluminium monocoque chassis, Ford Cosworth DFV 3 litre V8, circa 430bhp @ 10200rpm in 1970. Hewland DG 300 5 speed ‘box. IFS front by top rocker, lower wishbone and coil spring/ damper units and rear by single top link, single top radius rod, twin parallel lower links and coil spring/damper units, F5000 TS8 of the time a variant of this chassis. The car won some championship points and the Non-Championship Oulton Park Gold Cup in 1970. (cutaway by Bill Bennett)

Photo and Other Credits…

The Cahier Archive, Alexandre Willerding, Keverell Thompson Collection, John Ellacott, Dick Simpson, Bruno Betti, Bill Bennett, Rainer Schlegelmilch

Finito…

 

Chapp

Fabulous shot of the Mike Spence/Phil Hill Chaparral 2F Chev at La Source hairpin, Spa-Francorchamps, May ’67. 

The cars automatic gearbox failed in a race won by the Ickx/Thompson/Rees Mirage M1 Ford. 1967 was the last year of the 7 litre ‘monsters’, the CSI mandated a 5 litre limit from ’68.

Ford started the ’67 season with their new Ford GT MkIV and then left the scene having won Le Mans twice on the trot, ‘mission accomplished’ in a sense. Ferrari won the championship from Porsche by 2 points in a season of grids comprising Ferrari P3/4, Porsche 910, Lola T70 , Ford GT40’s , Alfa Romeo T33 , Mirage M1 and Matra M630…truly a Sports Car Season to savour.

le mans 67 start

As Mike Spence buckles up his seatbelt in the Chaparral 2F Chev, second on the grid, he is surrounded by FoMoCo vehicles; #1 the victorious Gurney/Foyt, #3 Bianchi/Andretti and Hulme/Ruby Mk4’s, and the #5 Gardner/McCluskey and Schlesser/Ligier Mk2’s…not a Ferrari close by! (Unattributed)

The 2F was consistently quick throughout the season but often the transmission main drive-bearing failed. Both Hill and Spence were popular Chaparral team members. Of Hill, Jim Hall said ‘Phil was a great guy with a lot of talent and really fun to work with because he understood a lot of what was going on.’

‘I think he was probably as good as anybody at making the car finish. He’d put many cars together himself and knew how everything was made and how to take care of it. He was a great endurance driver for other reasons, but for that reason too. When we got near the CanAm season in 1966 we decided we’d offer Phil a drive. He was a great guy to have on your team – he pulled for you and worked for you. And in the endurance races he was our man. I think Phil enjoyed driving for us, we just had a good relationship.

Phil Hill never raced again after his ’67 Brands 6 Hour victory, a great way to bow out after such a career of achievement. ‘It was absolutely satisfying to win that race at Brands Hatch…in retrospect there couldn’t be a better way to finish a career could there?’ he said. The 1967 Endurance Season is covered in full in this recent article on the Ferrari P4…https://primotipo.com/2015/04/02/ferrari-p4canam-350-0858/

phil hill

Phil Hill pondering 2F transmission dramas at Le Mans 1967. Mike Spence sans helmet behind him. (Dave Friedman)

Hall also had great respect for Spence who was killed at Indianapolis in May 1968 in a Lotus 56. ‘I really thought a lot of Mike. He was an awfully talented driver, very quick and a smart guy who worked hard. He was a good fit for Chaparral too. It takes the right kind of person to be on your team who fits in with your people and how they work and Mike fitted us well and was a joy to work with’.

Designer/Driver/Engineer Jim Hall’s cars bristled with innovation; the winged, 7 litre Chevrolet engined, fibreglass monocoque, auto ‘tranny Chaparrals’ thrilled European spectatators and finally won a ’67 race, the Brands Hatch 6 Hour event in July before returning to their Midland, Texas base and the US CanAm Championship from whence they came…

chapp spa

2F at rest, Spa pits 1967. Hill talks about set-up with Jim Hall. Note the front lip or splitter. Spence put the car on pole at 3:31:5, quick enough for 6th on the GP grid that June…in a car designed for 24 hour events. OK its 7 litres, but remarkable all the same. (Unattributed)

Innovative Chaparral 2F…

The 2F was a massive departure from previous Chaparrals’ even by their standards.

chap 2f aero

This drawing neatly shows the Chap 2F key aero elements; cars shape, front spring loaded flap, you can just see the chin lip spoiler used on some tracks at the front. Rear mounted rads and beautiful ducting in and out and the movable high rear wing, to alter between download and neutral positions. (Unattributed)

The car featured hip mounted radiators to better position weight and had the bi-product of keeping the cockpit cooler. The 5 year old 2A chassis had special mouldings bonded to it to create the square sided shape, the transformations were such that they were effectively new. To provide strength to the bodywork, sections were laid up in female moulds with 4-oz cloth and epoxy resin and ¼ in PVC foam. In areas were strength wasn’t required the fibreglass was very thin. Firestone developed wider tyres for ’67 which required wider bodywork, the actual chassis was covered by flat panels on either side, these were ‘skins’ with empty space between them and the old chassis.

Externally only the central cab section looked the same. A new body profile was evolved in the form of a wedge to generate downforce. At the rear the body tapered away to a ‘spindle shape’ with a ‘chopped off tail’.

To balance downforce at the front a similar type of high mounted wing as was used on the ’66 2E CanAm car was used, mounted directly to the rear uprights. The wing was connected to a foot pedal and via hydraulics allowed the driver to have feathered ‘lo drag’ or maximum downforce modes. Should anything go wrong with the feathering mechanism or the driver needed his left foot for the brakes, the car went to fail safe maximum downforce, understeer mode.

The front opening contained a spring-loaded flap or duct that opened against air pressure when speeds exceeded 120mph, this helped balance aerodynamic loads front to rear.

The body floated free on its springs devoid of practically any downforce which was applied directly to the uprights by the monster rear wing. As the nose of the car pitched forward more front downforce was generated, at 150mph the nose compressed the front suspension, the trapdoor or flap opened progressively at 120-140mph, the car would then settle to its appropriate ride height front/rear.

2f naked at le mans

2F naked at LeMans for its transmission repair. Big wing and its mount direct to rear suspension uprights, note forward facing support strut. Mid mounted radiators, seat belt in the cockpit, radiator header tank, bell mouths of Chev/Weber carbs, spare wheel housing, exhaust ducting. ‘LeMans’ number lights, 12X16 inch Chap alloys and big, wide Firestones. (Albert Bochroch)

Chaparral modelled both aluminium Chev 327CID  and 427CID engines, with different car weight limits applicable under the regulations. They considered the existing CanAm aluminium chassis with 5 litre engine and a fibreglass chassis car with the bigger 7 litre ‘lump’. The 5.4 litre engine could have been ‘destroked’. Simulations showed the latest staggered valve ‘porcupine’ 7 litre Chev, cast in aluminium the faster option. It weighed 85 lbs more then the ‘smallblock’ but gave around 100bhp more. The engine used Weber style 58 IDM carburetors built by Chev and gave circa 575bhp @ 7500 rpm.

The Chaparral’s GM automatic transaxle was upgraded to three speeds but the ‘box was at its limits and the increased power and torque proved the gearbox was the packages weak link, this was feared by Chaparral from the start of the 2F program. GM simply did not want to build a new transmission and hoped internal changes could cope with the 7 litres’ greater torque, but this was not to be the case.

There is a lot of mystique about the transmission, Pete Lyons, in his ‘Profile Publications’ article on the Chaparral ‘Glassfibre Cars’ described it as follows ‘It was laid out much like a Hewland with 2 speeds and later 3 and an hydraulic coupling, a torque convertor instead of a clutch.’

‘The gears were simple straight cut spurs engaged by sliding dog clutches; every second dog was cut back a little to assist the clutchless changes. The changes were all done manually, the driver easing his throttle foot to unload the dogs and snatching the gear as quickly as he could. It therefore wasn’t really an automatic transmission, it was a fluid clutch transmission. The engine was always started with a gear engaged, the driver preventing a lunge foward by firm pressure with his left foot. At…5000rpm the coupling was designed to lock up rigidly to prevent further slip and power loss. Sensitive drivers could feel this happening’.

The advantages of the ‘box were better modulation of braking, on down changes the fluid coupling lessened any tendency of the rear wheels to lock, finally the fluid coupling absorbed many shock loads such as a ‘yump’ landing, common at the time.

2f

Superb James Allington cutaway of the 2F showing all of its innovations : fibre-glass monocoque, wing, automatic transmission, 7 litre aluminium block Chev…1967 remember. Simply superb innovative design and execution by Jim Hall and his Texas Team (James Allington)

Jim Hall’s attention to weight saving was fanatical, the car weighed 1750lbs wet, 600lbs less! than the Ford MkIV. This was due to the fibreglass chassis, aluminium rather than (Ford) iron block engine, the batteries were of very expensive cadmium from the aerospace industry. The body was made of a sandwich of 1/4 inch thick PVC foam between the thin skins of ‘4 oz cloth’ impregnated with Shell epoxy resin which was formed to shape in a vacuum bag apparatus and then cured at room temperature. Sylvania made new quartz iodide lights using hand made bulbs in Marchal reflectors.

The whole car was built to exceptionally high aerospace standards of quality and finish.

hall chap 2g

Jim Hall in his 1967 CanAm challenger, the Chaparral 2G Chev at Bridgehampton. DNF chassis failure. The McLaren M6 Chevs were dominant that year, Robin Herd, the M6 designer freely acknowledged the effect Halls’ designs, especially the 2E, the first car with the high wing had on him. Hulme won the race in his M6A. (Pete Lyons)

Jim Hall and Aerodynamics…

Gordon Kirby interviewed Jim Hall in 2008, he published these comments by Hall about his seminal aerodynamic work in the mid 60’s…’We calibrated the suspension by just rolling the car out and putting weights on it so we knew what load it took to move the car up and down. We had a cable drive that drove a pencil and a roll of paper that was run by a little motor so you could set your zero point. You would go out and make a run and push a button and make a mark across the paper so we knew what the front and rear downforce was. You could run a couple of different speeds and then you could put it on a graph. You knew that it was increasing as the square of the speed so you knew what the curve looked like and you pretty much had the downforce over a speed range. That was pretty simple to do.’

Hall’s method of measuring the air pressure or downforce on the surface of his car’s wings or bodywork was equally simple in concept. ‘The other thing we did was when we needed to change the surface we had a manometer that was just a bunch of u-tubes made out of tigon tubing and full of coloured water,’ Hall related. ‘If you were in a sports car you put it in the seat beside you and then went out and tapped a bunch of holes in the. You ran these to one side of the tubes and ran the other one to a pitot tube so you could get the dynamic air pressure on the surface.

I originally did it with a Polaroid camera. I had a Polaroid camera mounted on the dash and the manometer mounted on the seat back beside me. I didn’t even have a pitot tube for a static pressure source. I read in a book somewhere that a guy in WWI thought about doing this. The way he thought about doing it was you took a thermos bottle and put a piece of tubing in it and right before you made the test you opened it up then closed it so you had static air pressure in it. Then you went out to make your run and compared it to the pressures you got, then opened it and made sure it didn’t change.

‘In a matter of about twenty minutes that thermos bottle would maintain an even enough temperature that the pressure wouldn’t change much. So you had some static pressure while you were sitting in the pit and you also had static pressure when you were going down the straightaway. It’s simple-minded, but pretty tricky! And that’s the way we started.

‘Then we bought a light airplane pitot tube and mounted it out front of the car. We found a static pressure place where we could run that pitot tube that matched the thermos. Then we had a static pressure source all the time.’

Thus began the serious science of racing car aerodynamics. Of course, Hall had no idea about the depth of the pandora’s box he was opening but he is without doubt the father of the modern aerodynamically-driven racing car.

targa overhead

This overhead shot is of the 2F at Targa 1967, drivers Hill and Hap Sharp. The angle is interesting; you can see the contours of the car, radical for the time. Front flap exit above the number, mid-ships mounted rads and exit venting, the row of 3 circular vents in the rear panel to relieve air pressure and the ever present driver adjustable rear wing, max downforce for 90% of the time in Sicily i imagine. (Unattributed)

cahp le mans

Chaparral 2F Chev ‘butt shot’ in the Le Mans parc ferme. The radically different aerodynamic treatment in terms of both the cars shape and rear wing apparent. Road registered to boot…The car quailfied 2nd in the hands of Mike Spence and Phil Hill, they retired on lap 225 with transmission oil seal failure. The sister Jennings/Johnson 2F failed after 91 laps with starter and battery dramas. The race was won by the Gurney/Foyt Ford MkIV. (Unattributed)

bonnier chap 2 d

The 1967 Chaparral 2F’s predecessor in endurance racing was the 1966 2D, here in Jo Bonnier’s hands in the Karussel at the Nurburgring where he and Phil Hill won on the cars European debut. The 2D also used a fibreglass monocoque chassis, had a 2 rather than 3 speed box of the 2F and was powered by a Chev 327cid/5360cc ‘small block’ Chev giving circa 475 bhp @ 7000 rpm. Like the 2F, its race record was littered with DNF’s, 6 from 7 starts. (Unattributed)

Chaparral 2F: 8 Race History…

One of the things which strikes you about this big car when you look at its speed during 1967 is its pace on all types of circuits, it was on pole at Monza, Spa, and the Nurburgring, started from grid position 2 at Sebring and Le Mans and grid 3 at Brands.

The challenges of the Daytona bowl are vastly different to the swoops and curves of Targa or the ‘Ring let alone the high speed challenge of Le Mans. It was clearly a ‘complete car’, an excellent all around package, the best car Phil Hill was quoted as saying that he ever drove.

At Daytona the car ran with its wing fixed in position, but still only just missed pole. Hill lead, took the fastest race lap and was pulling away from the Ferrari P4’s until the fourth hour, falling off on marbles after a pitstop and hitting a wall. Hill was a little miffed that teammmate Mike Spence, with whom he had a great working relationship, had not warned him about the hazard, their race ended on lap 93, Bandini and Amon taking a Ferrari P4 win.

2 f sebring

Mike Spence here, and Jim Hall raced the 2F at Sebring. Fastest race lap but again DNF with ‘box troubles. (Nigel Smuckatelli)

At Sebring Hill was forced to retire from the meeting having acute appendicitis so Jim Hall stepped into the car with Spence, he was 2nd on the grid but had trouble starting. The car retired on lap 145 with differential failure, the car car trailed smoke for several laps in adavance of retirement, victory went to the Mclaren/Andretti Ford MkIV.

In Europe the cars were based in Frankfurt, the Monza event the first on the continent. Spence put the car on pole, using the second 2D chassis converted to 2F spec and from the flag diced with the P4’s but a universal joint failure eliminated the car before the end of the first hour. Bandini/Amon won in a P4.

At Spa a week later the car had a small trim tab added at the wings trailing edge, the tab made it easier to adjust the wings settings at high speed. Hill put the car on pole by 3.5 seconds but rain fell on Sunday, ‘Rainmaster’ and local boy Jacky Ickx ‘ate us alive’ Hill said. Spence ran in 5 th till a fuel stop after which the car refused to start. At half distance it was 8th but another blown transmission seal caused its retirement. Ickx and Thomson won in a Mirage M1.

2 f targa

Phil Hill in his ‘outta this world’ futuristic Chaparral justaposed with the ancient Sicilian landscape…and the oh-so-conventional, if gorgeous Ferrari P4’s for that matter. But Porsche prevailed, as they so often did at Targa. (Yves Debraine)

Mike Spence had other commitments so Hap Sharp stepped in with Phil Hill at the Little Madonie, the 575 bhp ‘roller skate’ a challenge around the mountainside of the famous Targa course. Local boy Nino Vaccarella was faster in practice than the 2F by 1.5 minutes, the car not entirely happy over the bumps but was still up to 4th, 9.5 minutes behind the leading Porsche when a tyre went flat at Collesano. Paul Hawkins and Rolf Stommelen took the win in a factory Porsche 910.

targa 2f

Lookout! Phlegmatic Siciliani…Targa 1967. Ride height up for this event, front splitter replete with an empty pasta packet clear. Phil Hill/ Hap Sharp Chap 2F. (Unattributed)

At the ‘Ring Spence took 5 seconds from the old sportscar lap record and set the first over 100mph lap by a sporty, John Surtees was 7 seconds adrift in his Lola T70. Hill put on his harness after the Le Mans start so came around in 6th, by lap 8 he moved into the lead, but at about the 1.5 hour mark, on lap 10, the cars transmission again failed. Schutz/Buzzeta won in a Porsche 910.

chap 2f nurburgring

Phil Hill is back in the pack on lap 1 of the Nurburgring 1000Km, having carefully put on his ‘belt. Amongst the class cars are a Ford GT40 in front of him, you can also see the nose of the Surtees/David Hobbs Lola T70Mk3 Aston Martin behind and to the side, DNF with rear suspension failure. That wing will have given cars being pursued no doubt as to the car behind! (Automobile Year)

Le Mans was and still is all important, 2 cars ran, Hill/Spence missing pole by only 0.3 of a second from a Ford MkIV. Johnson/Jennings in the other car were 24th. Both 2F’s got away well, by the end of the first hour Spence was 4th and by the second he was 2nd, then the wing actuation broke, the car went into high downforce safe mode knocking around 40 mph off the top speed.

Inevitably the transmsision gave trouble but the car was still in 3rd when an heroic 3 hour rebuild of the transmission was commenced by the crew, all to no avail as the car was withdrawn. The other 2F retired earlier with ‘electrical failure’. The race was famously won by the All American Boys, AJ Foyt and Dan Gurney in a Ford MkIV.

le mans rebuild

The long 3 hour, crowd pleasing, crowd appreciating transmission rebuild is underway. LeMans 1967. Franz Weis and Karl Schmid start the process by stripping the rear of the car to gain ‘box access, no mean feat in itself given the careful integration of the overall package. (Karl Ludvigsen)

The inaugural Brands Hatch 500 Miles was the last championship race of the season, the Brabham/Hulme LolaT70 on pole, Spence/Hill 0.8 second adrift in 3rd. Hulme took the lead but retired with rocker failure, letting the 2F into the lead. A long mid race pitstop dropped them back to 3rd but consistent laps of taking 2 seconds per lap from the Ferrari in front saw the wonderful car displace the Stewart/Amon Ferrari P4. A winner, finally!

Motor racing is full of ‘ifs, buts and maybes’.

As the great, late and laconic Frank Gardner said ‘If Yer Aunty had Balls She’d be Yer Uncle’…but one wonders what this seminal, defining, brilliant car would have achieved had the ‘oh so clever’ ‘automatic gearbox’ which was such a big part of most of the Chaparral 2 program, had the re-engineered gearbox it so badly needed and deserved?!

In a sad sequel Jim Hall was preparing for another season with a 7 litre car for 1968 when the FIA announced a 3 litre limit for prototypes from 1968 and limited sports cars to 5 litres in capacity, 25 examples of which had to be built for homologation. The big Fords’ and Chaparrals’ were out, racing the poorer for it.

It was not over for Chaparral of course but after 1967 they focused on their domestic CanAm Championship with equally radical cars, and many years later a victorious assault on the Indy 500, both stories for another time.

chap 2 hill brands

Mike Spence in the 2F at Brands Hatch headingfor victory and running ahead of the factory Ferrari P4 of Ludovico Scarfiotti and Peter Sutcliffe, 5th. (Louis Klemantaski)

Tailpiece…

chap 2 j riverside

Its hard to know which of Jim Hall’s cars was the wildest, perhaps the ’69 CanAm 2H, a very unsuccessful one i will write about soon. He doubled his bets with the 1970 2J, the famous ‘ground effect sucker’ car being so quick officialdom banned it and with it the whole ethos that made the CanAm the great ‘Formula Libre’ Series that it was. Here at Riverside, sportscar ace Vic Elford in the 2J Chev leads Peter Gethin in the championship winning McLaren M8D Chev. Hulme won the race in the other M8D, Gethin DNF engine on lap 21 and Elford DNF engine on lap2. (Unattributed)

Etcetera…

jim and phil

Jim Hall, left and Phil Hill CanAm 1966. (Unattributed)

chap drawings

Chaparral 2F drawing, car depicted as it raced at Targa 1967. (Unattributed)

sebring engine change

Sebring engine change showing the girth of the aluminium 7 litre ‘big block’ Chev and the housing of the famous GM ‘automatic’ transaxle. I wonder how long the change it took from start to finish? (Unattributed)

targa butt shot

Targa 2F butt shot, aero treatment of the car nicely contrasts with the Sicilian ‘roadies’. Wing in maximum downforce mode. Note the rear devoid of tail panel, compared with the earlier LeMans rear shot. (Bernard Cahier)

 

hill aviating

Phil Hill aviating the 2F at the Nurburgring despite the Chaparral wing in full downforce mode! Lightening fast, the 1000Km  another race the car should have won on a circuit one would not necessarily have thought it were suited. A versatile car the 2F, quick pretty much everywhere. (Unattributed)

cahap family tree

The ‘Chaparral Family Tree’…(Unattributed)

Credits… 

Pete Lyons ‘The Chaparral 2,2D,2F The Glassfibre Series’ Profile Publications, Cutaway drawing- James Allington, Jim Hall quotes from a Gordon Kirby ‘MotorSport’ articles in November 2008 and January 2011, Dave Friedman, Bill Wagenblatt ‘Track Thoughts’, Albert Bochroch, Nigel Smuckatelli, Karl Ludvigsen, Bernard Cahier, Louis Klemantaski

See this link for some great information on Jim Halls fabulous cars…

http://www.thechaparralfiles.com/

Finito…