Archive for October, 2016

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The Hon Jock Leith’s Bugatti Type 35B leads EG Hughes Frazer Nash, Brooklands 16 March 1935…

JA Hamptons shot is all about composition, just love that background Vickers factory, a well known  aviation name of course.

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By 1919 Vickers was already famous for the first non-stop crossing of the Atlantic Ocean when Alcock and Brown flew their converted Vickers Vimy bomber from Newfoundland to a crash landing in an Irish bog.

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The company was known as a shipbuilder, but early in the 20th century saw aviation as a profitable future opportunity. In 1908 the British Admiralty ordered the R.1 airship from them, a few years later Vickers built a French monoplane under license. In 1913 their first design, the F.B.I. flew.

Vickers Flying School opened at Brooklands on 20 January 1912,  aircraft construction commenced on the site in 1915, Vickers having taken over the Itala Motor Works factory, by the Wars end they had built 4500 aircraft there…

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Wellingon bombers being built at Vickers factory, Brooklands in December 1939 (Keystone-France)

Click on these links for interesting websites about Vickers and its history…

This one is more about Vickers on the Brooklands site; http://www.subbrit.org.uk/sb-sites/sites/v/vickers_shelter/index.shtml

And this one more about the aircraft themselves; http://www.vc10.net/History/vc10_origins.html

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Credit…

JA Hampton, vc10.net, subbrit.org.uk, Keystone France, Underwood Archive

Tailpiece…

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British GP, Brooklands Saturday 1 October 1927, Vickers factory in the background. The race ‘Royal Automobile Club Grand Prix’ was won by Robert Benoist’s Delage 155B, first 2 cars here both Bugatti’s (Underwood Archives)

 

 

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Dodgems 1936 style, Royal Adelaide Show, Wayville…

Timeless, ageless and still fun for kids of all ages, the gentleman in the photo adds an air of formality normally lacking in sideshows!

‘twould be interesting to know what these little buzz-box, bumper cars were powered by, no sign of an electrical connection in evidence here. The Show traditionally starts on the first Friday in September and lasts 10 days, so its early September ‘36.

I chanced upon the shot looking for something else, it was too good not to share. The Adelaide Showgrounds are still in the same spot, Wayville is not too far from the cities ‘Square Mile’ which defines its CBD.

Credits…

Raymond Gordon, State Library of SA

 

 

 

 

Credits…

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Jackie Stewart being largely ignored by most of the ‘snappers’ at Zandvoort during the Dutch Grand Prix weekend in 1971…

Rainer Schlegelmilch’s shot seems to be a portrait of his colleagues, Diana Burnett is the lady, the distinctive figure of Bernard Cahier is the chap in the blue cap and Goodyear jacket. It’s dry which makes it practice, the wet race was won by Ickx’ Ferrari with JYS 4th in Tyrrell 003 Ford.

I was first smitten by single-seaters upon spotting Jochen Rindt’s sensational ‘Gold Leaf’ Lotus 72 in the Automobile Year 18 ‘centrefold’ below.

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Rindt on his way to a joyless first GP win for the Lotus 72 Ford during the 1970 Dutch GP at Zandvoort, his close friend Piers Courage perished in a grisly, fiery accident during the race in a De Tomaso 505 Ford (Automobile Year)

The book came from the Camberwell Grammar School library, I was an inmate for 6 years and borrowed these annuals, they bought the latest each year, hundreds of times over the years. If truth be known I surgically removed many of the full page color shots from the books which somehow found their way onto my bedroom wall, I was skilful with a razor blade long before I could shave!

So, I was a devotee of Colin Chapman’s Lotus 56/72 side radiator, chisel nose aero approach rather than Derek Gardner’s chunky ‘sportscar nose’ alternative he pioneered in F1 with Tyrrell in ’71. That the alternative approaches worked equally well was proved by the results of practitioners of the ‘two schools’ of aerodynamic thought throughout the ‘70’s, visually though it was ‘no contest’!

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Derek Gardner and Ken Tyrrell outside the Ockham, Surrey factory in August 1971. Tyrrell Ford could be ‘002 or 3’, ‘bluff nose’ first raced at the 4 July ’71 French GP  (Klemantaski)

Gardner’s Tyrrell period was relatively short but wonderfully sweet, although 7 years is a pretty long stint with one team I guess. His first series of cars was the 1970-72 ‘001-004’, the second series the 1972-3 ‘005-6’. Both design series won Grands’ Prix and World Titles. His ’74-5 ‘007’ and ’76-7 ‘P34’ six-wheeler won Grands Prix only, no titles. I doubt there are too many of the F1 design greats who can claim such a record.

I’ve written a few Tyrrell articles, which are worth a look if you haven’t done so; one is on innovation; https://primotipo.com/2014/09/16/tyrrell-019-ford-1990-and-tyrrell-innovation/ , the other on aerodynamics; https://primotipo.com/tag/tyrrell-007-ford/

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The car pictured above is Jackie Stewart’s ‘004’, the last of Gardner’s first series of designs. It’s being prepared for the 1972 Monaco Grand Prix, ‘004’s race debut, the GP classic won by Jean-Pierre Beltoise’ BRM P160B, famously his first and last GP win was also BRM’s last. JPB’s delicacy in the wet was aided by some schmick Firestone wets but it was a great drive by any measure. Jackie was 4th in ‘004’, he was not feeling 100% shortly thereafter was diagnosed with a stomach ulcer. Francois Cevert non-classified further back in ‘002’.

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JYS practices ‘004’ at Monaco in 1972, the race was somewhat wetter! (unattributed)

The first Tyrrell, ‘001’ made its race debut in Stewart’s hands at Oulton Park in the ‘International Gold Cup’ on 22 August 1970, the car famously designed and to an extent constructed in secret in Gardner’s home garage in Parklands Avenue, Leamington! The ‘bath tub’ monocoque chassis was built to his design by Maurice Gomm’s Gomm Metal Developments, later chassis were built at Tyrrell’s famous woodyard, the base of his timber business in Ockham, Surrey. Other notable sub-contractors were Jack Knight Engineering who did much of the machining, Aeroplane and Motor who provided the centre lock magnesium alloy wheels, Laystall the stub axles, not to forget Cosworth Engineering, Hewland’s and others.

‘001’s championship debut was at Mont Tremblant, the Canadian GP on 20 September where Jackie plonked it on pole and was leading strongly before a stub axle broke on lap 32. The car was ‘match fit’ at the start of its dominant 1971 season having done vast amounts of Goodyear testing, Dunlop, Tyrrell’s hitherto tyre supplier having withdrawn from F1. Over the South African summer at Kyalami over 400 tyres were tested by the team.

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Tyrrell and Stewart during the Oulton Park International Cup weekend in August 1970 upon ‘001’s debut. In a meeting of contrasts JYS qualified poorly after the fuel metering unit failed, then had a stuck throttle during the race which was fixed, the Scot broke the lap record twice later in the race, the cars competitiveness clear from the start. John Surtees won the event on aggregate, he won the second heat in his Surtees TS9 Ford and Henri Pescarolo the first heat (his only F1 win?) in a March 711 Ford

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More shots of ‘001’ during the Oulton August weekend. The cars distinctive bodywork was Gardners work and was tested at 1/10th scale in the wind tunnel of the University of Surrey in Guildford (Getty)

Powered by the good ‘ole 3 litre Ford Cosworth DFV V8 and using the equally ubiquitous Hewland FG400 5 speed transaxle, the bolides were ‘kit cars’ of the period derided by Enzo Ferrari but  remarkably quick bits of kit!

Look back to the photo of ‘004’ chassis at Monaco above. The monocoque was made of 16 guage NS4 aluminium alloy and like ‘002’ and ‘003’ was 4 inches longer in the length of the tub and 1 1/2 inches longer in the wheelbase than the prototype ‘001’.

You can see the wide based lower one piece wishbone is mounted both to the tub and at its outer end the tubular suspension carrying frame which was first made up on a jig and then slipped over the top of the monocoque to which it was externally riveted. The upper suspension arm is a top link and locating link mounted to a bracket on the tub. Shocks are alloy bodied, double adjustable Koni’s again period typical. The simple steering column is clear, the rack made by Tyrrells.

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Tyrrell 002-4 cutaway drawing, all chassis the same design, this car is ‘003’. Specs as per text (Tony Hatton)

The vastly strong 360 degree roll bar encircled the the rear bulkhead and was both spigoted and bolted through into the monocoque. The DFV, stressed of course, was then bolted through this hoop. The forward radius rod pickups you can just see attached to the bar structure.

The rear was also a close to perfect expression of period paradigm; single top link, twin parallel lower links to better control toe than the inverted lower wishbone used for the decade before, two radius rods for fore and aft location and again coil spring/Koni dampers.

Brakes are Girling calipers, ventilated rotors front and solid rears of 10 1/2 inch diameter Goodyear tyres were used from the start of 1971.

‘004’ was completed at the end of the ’71 season as a spare car for Stewart, it was relatively lightly raced by the works, click on this link for a full, interesting article on the car which is still alive, well and historic raced; http://www.britishracecar.com/JohnDimmer-Tyrrell-004.htm

Gardner’s ‘005-006’ cars were low polar moment, very quick, nervous devices from which the aces for which they were designed, Stewart and Francois Cevert extracted ‘every ounce’ of performance in later 1972 and in 1973. Here is my short article about these cars; https://primotipo.com/2014/08/25/jackie-stewart-monaco-gp-1973-tyrrell-006-ford/

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Ken Tyrrell supervising the packing away of ‘003’ at the end of a Goodwood test session on 16 January 1972 prior to shipping the car to Argentina for the start of the 1972 season. There Jackie drove it to his first win of a season in which Emerson Fittipaldi prevailed in the gorgeous, chisel nosed ‘John Player Special’ Lotus 72 which I think is about where we came in…

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The ever thoughtful Derek Gardner in blue shirt watches ‘Emmo’ head out for some more practice prior to the ’72 Italian GP, Monza. The Brazilian won the race and title in his Lotus 72D Ford. Francois Cevert is behind DG, his car Tyrrell 002, DNF with engine failure (unattributed)

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’71 Dutch GP collage (Schlegelmilch)

Credits…

Rainer Schlegelmilch, Victor Blackman, Getty Images, Klemantaski Archive, Tony Hatton

Doug Nye ‘The History of The GP Car’, The GP Encyclopaedia

Tailpiece: Opening Dutch GP shot, uncropped, low res…

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(Schlegelmilch)

 

 

 

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Juan Manuel Fangio wins the first F1 Grand Prix at Pau. Maserati 4CLT/48, 10 April 1950…

He is ahead of Luigi Villoresi’s Ferrari 125, 2nd. Louis Rosier was 3rd in a Talbot-Lago T26C.

The first championship Grand Prix for ‘Formula 1’ introduced at the start of 1950 was the British GP held at Silverstone on May 13.

Fangio, somewhat fittingly is therefore the first winner of an F1GP albeit a Non-Championship one! Farina took the Silverstone race in an Alfa 158, the car of 1950/51.

Credit: Keystone-France

Tailpiece…

pau gp

 

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Richie Ginther surveys the damage he has inflicted upon his factory Ferrari during the 1960 Targa weekend…

The local kiddo’s are either surveying the scene with sympathy or thinking about what they can liberate from Enzo’s nice, new red car!

In fact the shot is a bit of a mystery upon doing a bit more research.

The Ferrari drivers were reshuffled after several accidents in practice of which this seems to be one as it isn’t the car in which Richie started the race with Cliff Allison. That was the #202 de-Dion rear axled TR59/60 pictured below; and in which Richie went off line passing a car and smote a tree a fatal blow for the car on lap 5.

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Cliff Allison before the Targa start in the 250 Testa Rossa shared with Richie Ginther (unattributed)

Allison himself had a huge ‘character building’ accident in practice when a tyre failed in the Ferrari TRI/60 (independent rear suspension Testa Rossa) he was scheduled to share with Phil Hill.

So, the question is what model Ferrari is the one pictured at the articles outset? It looks as if it may have side-draft Webers, is it an old Monza ‘praps? One for you Ferrari experts.

The race was won by the Jo Bonnier/Hans Herrmann Porsche 718 RS60 a much more nimble conveyance around this circuit than the 3 litre V12 front-engined Fazz…

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Graham Hill sitting in Jo Bonnier’s winning Porsche 718 RS60, Graham was cross-entered in the car. Don’t bend it Graham please! Hill was 5th is a similar car shared with Edgar Barth (unattributed)

Credit…

GP Library

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Mrs Cook’s Cooper is fettled at Brands Hatch during 1957…

Clearly an inspirational woman for the teenagers with the cameras looking on. All information about the driver gratefully received.

Credit…

Charles Hewitt

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Jones in the Lola THL1 Hart, Monaco 1986, Q18 and DNF after a collision on lap 2. Patrick Tambay’s performance was perhaps more indicative of the cars speed, Q8 but again DNF after an accident. Prost won in a McLaren MP4/2C TAG Porsche (Getty)

Alan Jones in his Lola THL1 Hart at Monaco during practice on May 10 1986…

Just looking these pictures, note the Ford logo on the side of the cockpit, reminded me of the vexed, too soon launched Ford Cosworth GBA 1.5 V6 twin-turbo.

Jones and Tambay didn’t race the Ford engine in ’86, they contested the title with Brian Hart’s Hart 415T, 4 cylinder engine whilst GBA development continued at Cosworths. Best results for the year were a 4th and 5th in Austria in a sea of DNF’s. The Haas team then withdrew from F1, the GBA program torch carried forward by Benetton but not for too long…

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The tiny Ford Cosworth GBA; 1497cc, 120 degree DOHC, 4 valve V6 twin-KKK-turbo, circa 750bhp, depending on month and spec, engine during the British GP weekend, Brands Hatch 1986 (Schlegelmilch)

That Brian Hart built an F1 engine is an accident of history. It was an evolution of the relationship he had with the Toleman Team who won the European F2 Championship in 1980 (Brian Henton won the drivers title) with his superb 2 litre 420R 4 cylinder engine (below) in the back of Rory Byrne’s TG280 ground effects chassis.

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The 420R engine cutaway, note belt driven camshafts, engine extremely compact and beautifully packaged, an evolution of his FVA and BDA knowledge including his design/development of the alloy 2 litre BDG block (John Way)

 

The 420R engine has a bore/stroke of 93.5 mm x 72.6 mm, a capacity of 1994 cc and was the result of a long development path starting with Hart’s race preparation of FVA’s in 1969. Designed in house, blocks and heads came from Stirling Metals with the machining done at Harts. Gordon Allen produced the cranks, Hart did his own cams and developed the pistons with Mahle in Germany. Lucas provided the fuel injection. The engine developed 305 bhp @ 9,500 rpm with safe bursts to just over 10,000 rpm.

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Toleman TG280 Hart cutaway, 1980 Euro F2 championship winner in Brian Henton’s hands with Derek Warwick fidhting him all the way in the sister car. Aluminium ground effects monocoque chassis, Hart 420R engine, Hewland FT200 5 speed transaxle. In 1981 Lola built customer versions of this design (Alenso)

Ted Toleman’s wealth derived  from building up the UK’s largest car transport business, his ambition extended to graduation from F2 to F1. Rory Byrne designed what became the TG181 chassis which team manager Alex Hawkridge told Brian would either carry a turbo-charged version of the 420R or Lancia’s turbo 1.4 which was doing service in their sports-racer at the time. So Brian set to with the challenge!

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Brian Hart shows journalist Maurice Hamilton his handiwork in March 1982. Early test of the turbo-charged 415T engine. Look at that early turbo/inlet manifold (Hamilton)

‘I had never even seen a turbocharger,’ Hart claims, ‘and I didn’t understand intercooling’. His engine was the first British turbo Fl engine and the TG181 was as ‘big and butch’ as the TG280 was ‘nimble and slinky’. Packaging of these early turbo-cars was a big challenge even with the resources of Ferrari whose 1981 126CK was no picture of elegance either.

The first beautifully integrated turbo was John Barnard’s 1984 McLaren MP4/2 TAG Porsche largely because he prescribed very thoroughly the packaging of his engine spec to Porsche to ensure the needs of his chassis, particularly its aerodynamic effectiveness were not compromised by the engine and its ancillaries inclusive of radiators and intercoolers.

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Monobloc all alloy Hart 415T, note belt driven cam drive and atypical Holset turbo, spec of engine as per text (John Way)

The first iteration of the 415T had a bore and stroke of 89.2mm X 60mm and a capacity of 1499cc. With a compression ratio of 6.7:1 and single KKK turbo-charger the engine developed circa 557bhp at 9500rpm compared to its competitors; normally aspirated Cosworth DFV circa 500bhp and Matra V12 510. The turbos were the Renault V6 540, Ferrari V6 560 and BMW in-line 4 557bhp.

The 415T engine was down on power and prone to head-gasket failure, drivers Brian Henton and Derek Warwick who had enjoyed so much Hart F2 success in 1980 repeatedly failed to qualify.

Hart was under lots of pressure and there was heavy tension between him and Byrne noting the shortcomings of the latters chassis. Derek Warwick later observed that Brian was a great engineer, a great person and always under-financed. And a pretty handy driver in his day…

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Works Lotus F2 driver in 1964, here at Montlhery, Lotus 32 Ford Cosworth SCA. Brian was 4th behind Brabham, Stewart in the other Ron Harris entry and Jo Schlesser. Grand Prix de L’ile de France, 27 September 1964. Equal 13th in the Euro F2 Championship that year (Viollet)

Brian Hart raced with success, he dominated the 1172cc Clubmans formula and later raced in FJ, its successor F3 and in F2 during its most competitive period with grids full of ‘graded’, moonlighting GP drivers.

He raced the brilliant Mike Costin designed Protos 16 powered by a Hart prepped Cosworth FVA, a highlight setting fastest lap and finishing second to Frank Gardner’s works Brabham BT23 FVA in the slip-streaming blast title qualifier at Hockenheim in 1967. He was 11th in the Euro F2 Championship that year and 14th in 1968 driving a Merlyn Mk12 and Brabham BT23C both FVA powered .

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Kurt Ahrens ahead of teammate Brian Hart in sensational timber monocoque Protos 16 Ford FVA F2 cars during the ’67 German GP won by Denny Hulme’s Brabham BT24 Repco. Brian finished the race but was unclassified, F2 class won by Jack Oliver’s Lotus 48 FVA (unattributed)

He gradually phased from driving into building and developing race engines forming Brian Hart Engines in Harlow, Essex in 1969 gaining much success preparing and tuning FVA’s for racing and BDA’s for rallying. Ronnie Peterson won the Euro F2 championship in 1971 with a Hart prepared FVA (March 711M) and Mike Hailwood in 1972 with an 1850cc BDA. (Surtees TS10)

Brian originally trained at De Havilland Aircraft, then worked for Cosworths when they were building/developing the 1600cc Ford FVA F2 engine, the precursor to the great DFV in the initial 1966/7 partnership between Cosworth and Ford.

A turning point with the 415T was when Hart decided to build the engine as a monobloc, that is no separate head joint to be sealed against coolant, boost pressure and combustion leaks; ‘I decided to cast the head and block as one and in about a fortnight we gained 130bhp. Hart also used British Holset turbo-chargers and benefitted from their flexibility and willingness to develop their products to suit the engine. ‘And the new car (1982 TG183) was 90 per cent better’ Hart quipped.

The much improved TG183B scored 10 championship points in ’83. In ’84 F1 novice Ayrton Senna almost won at Monaco in the quicker TG184. Hart recalled working with the young champion ‘He was astonishing. No man until Schumacher could motivate a team like Ayrton. I asked him to remember the boost reading on one corner per lap, and he came back after a single lap with all the readings for every corner in his head. It was a new level of participation.’

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Ayrton Senna in the dry during Monaco 1984 practice, this overhead shot shows the innovative aero approach of Rory Byrne. Car a bit fugly but fast albeit not reliable enough, Toleman TG183B. The famous race was wet, it started 45 minutes late, the two Renaults collided thru no fault of their own on lap 1 giving Patrick Tambay a broken leg, setting the tone of the race. The chequered flag was waved early by (factory Porsche 956 driver) Clerk of Course Jacky Ickx, without consulting the Race Stewards, on lap 31 giving the Porsche powered Prost a win in his McLaren MP4/2 TAG from Senna who was chasing him down. Behind him Stefan Bellof was catching Ayrton hand over fist in his Tyrrell, having started the only normally aspirated car in the race from the back of the grid.To this day enthusiasts debate the race outcome had it gone a few more laps let alone the full distance, 76 laps. A collision between Senna and Prost giving Stefan the win or a collision between Senna and Bellof giving Prost the win my two potential outcomes! Bellof’s podium was taken off him later in the season as the Tyrrell was found to be underweight by the FIA. Read a report of this event, the twists and turns from Martin Brundle’s practice crash to Tyrrell’s exclusion months later amazing. The race was notable for the fine delicacy of control these two tigers (Senna and Bellof) exhibited in such difficult conditions on the most unforgiving circuit so early in their careers, greatness apparent to say the least, unfulfilled, sadly, in Bellof’s case of course (unattributed)

In 1985 development was hamstrung early in the year when the team could not test as they had no tyre contract, this problem was solved when they bought the Spirit teams contract when they withdrew from F1. By this stage with Holset turbo, Hart/ERA digital engine management and Marelli fuel injection at 2.5 atmospheres of boost the engine developed about 740bhp at 10,500rpm.

A fantastic moment was when the car qualified on pole in the German GP after second session times were impacted by rain. The engine was estimated to be giving about 825bhp in qualifying spec with about 730 in race spec but reliability to a large extent had been lost.

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Teo Fabi at Brands Hatch in the Toleman TG185 Hart during the ’85 British GP, DNF transmission from grid 9. Prost won in a McLaren MP4/2B TAG Porsche. Look at how neat the packaging of this car is compared with the earlier Tolemans, Rory Byrne and Brian Hart made great strides in development of both chassis and engines. The great shame is that none of Hart’s customers were ‘flush enough’ to fund a development program of Hart’s 415T to get the mix of power/reliability needed. Hart probably also shot himself in the foot by taking on more teams than he really had the resources to service properly. As you can see hindsight is a great strength of mine! (Fosh)

The Toleman team was acquired by Benetton later in 1985, who used BMW engines. It was a relief for Hart who struggled with small budgets and too many customers (Spirit, RAM and Beatrice-Lola) ‘I had my arm twisted to do other teams. Toleman simply couldn’t fund the development. I once told Paul Rosche (BMW’s engine guru) what we had to spend, and he said they spent that on blocks alone’ Hart recalled in a MotorSport interview.

Hart 415T; aluminium 4 cylinder monobloc weighing about 140Kg. Belt driven DOHC, 4 valve, fuel injected, intercooled and single Holset turbocharger 1459cc (bore/stroke 88X61.55mm). Between 650-825bhp at 10500 rpm depending upon spec and year.

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Bennetton B187 Ford GBA 1.5 V6 twin-turbo (unattributed)

Going back to the Ford GBA engine early in the article, Benetton raced the ‘works’ Ford GBA’s with a modicum more success in 1987, 5th in the constructors championship won by Williams Honda the best result that year a 3rd in Adelaide for Thierry Boutsen at the seasons end.

Into 1988 and rule changes tipped the balance a little more in favour of normally aspirated engines so Benetton raced the B188 powered by the 3.5 litre V8 Ford Cosworth DFR finishing 3rd in the manufacturers championship behind McLaren and Ferrari; Ford competitiveness was returning and the GBA was placed on the shelf a victim of rule changes and being a little too late to the turbo-party…

Credits…

MotorSport, Doug Nye ‘History of The Grand Prix Car’, Maurice Hamilton, Anthony Fosh, Rainer Schlegelmilch, Pascal Rondeau, John Way, 8W Forix, Alenso, Roger Viollet

Tailpiece: Brian Hart with his 830 V8 engine, it was fitted to the Footwork chassis’, 1996 Spanish Grand Prix…

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After working on the development of the Ford Cosworth  DFR in the early 1990’s Hart built the 72 degree 3.5 litre V10 ‘1035’ which was used by Jordan with successful results in 1993. For the 3 litre formula in 1995 he ‘chopped a couple of cylinders off’, maintaining the 72 degree Vee angle to create the ultra compact ‘830’ V8.

Known fondly as ‘Jam Tart’, this immensely popular member of the F1 paddock died too young at 77 in 2014.

Finito…