Posts Tagged ‘Cooper T51 Climax’

(P D’Abbs)

Beautiful Peter D’Abbs photograph of Lex Davison’s Aston Martin DBR4/250, chassis number ‘1’ 3 litre with Austin Miller, Cooper T51 Climax in the background, Phillip Island, 23 October 1960…

Lex became famous for his retirements from racing and then his Dame Nellie Melba type returns to the grid, his 1958 AGP win at Bathurst was the last time he raced the marvellous ex-Ascari/Gaze Ferrari 500/625 and then he took a break, but heading into 1960 he planned to take a holiday in Europe with his wife Diana and to acquire a new racer.

He watched the increased ‘Cooperisation’ of Australian racing from the sidelines and decided that a modern incarnation of his HWM Jaguar would be competitive with the growing number of mid-engined cars. He initially pitched the idea of a DB4 3.7 litre engine in a DBR4 Grand Prix chassis but Aston Martin Racing Manager John Wyer assured him the motor would not readily fit and that the David Brown five-speed transaxle, already marginal, would be pushed beyond its design limits.

After plenty of argy-bargy about price a compromise was settled upon which involved DBR4 chassis 1 fitted with a 3 litre DBR1 sportscar engine, and the purchase of a DB4GT road car- rather a nice combination of roadie and racer!

The car was completed by late March 1960 and after testing by works test driver Jack Fairman and Roy Salvadori over two days at Goodwood the car was shipped to Australia. Davison drove the car on the second, and wetter of the days to within a fraction of a second of Fairman’s best.

It appears Lex raced the car, the first of the DBR4s built- raced by Roy Salvadori during the factories abortive 1959 Grand Prix season, four times in 1960.

An initial test session with Allan Ashton and the AF Hollins crew at Phillip Island after arrival at Port Melbourne was followed by THAT ‘missed a win by a bees dick’ Australian Grand Prix at Lowood on 12 June where Alec Mildren’s Cooper T51 Maserati led Davo home by an official margin of one half of a second after a little over an hour of Grand Prix motor racing of the first order- click here for a feature on Mildren inclusive of a full race report on the AGP; https://primotipo.com/2018/06/08/mildrens-unfair-advantage/

Davison in his new car, Aston DBR4/250 ‘1’ during the 1960 AGP at Lowood, Queensland (B Thomas)

 

Davison and Mildren hard at it at Lowood during the AGP- flaggies absorbed in the battle, not sure if it is Glynn Scott or Jon Leighton’s Cooper Climax behind (B Thomas)

Lex and the boys made the long trip back to Queensland in September and ran it again at Lowood in another Gold Star round for third place behind Alec and Bib Stillwell, both T51 mounted, then at the non-championship meeting at Phillip Island in October and finally the soggy Warwick Farm opening meeting on 18 December where he was fourth behind the T51s of Stillwell, John Youl and Austin Miller having started from the front row.

Famously these Aston Martins were at least two years too late to be competitive in Grand Prix racing- the honour of the last successful front-engined GP car goes to the Ferrari Dino 246 and that of the most sophisticated to the Lotus 16 Climax, if not the most reliable.

Two of the magnificent shapely machines came to Australia in 1960, Davo’s ‘DBR4/250 (1)’ and Bib’s ‘DBR4/250 (3)’- Stillwell had an each way bet, he had a Cooper or three as well as the Feltham beastie whereas all of Lex’ eggs were in one basket- until he borrowed one of Stillwell’s Cooper T51s and ‘nicked’ the 1961 Mallala AGP from under the noses of the established ‘water-cooled’ Cooper aces. I say that as Lex had been winning races and hillclimbs in two Phil Irving fettled Vincent engined Coopers for years- he was hardly unfamiliar with the handling characteristics of these little mid-engined missiles.

Ain’t she sweet our friend is thinking. Ballarat 1961 (P Skelton)

 

Davison’s DBR4 ‘1’ in the Ballarat paddock with Warwick Cumming at the wheel and perhaps Allan Ashton doing the pressures. I am not sure whether #4 or 14 is correct but both shots are Ballarat (P Coleby)

Into 1961 Lex raced the Aston in the late January Warwick Farm 100- Q11 and DNF oil leak,  the race was won by the Walker/Moss Lotus 18 Climax, Davison then contested the Victorian Trophy at Ballarat Airfield on 12 February- the colour photo taken above by Phillip Skelton at that meeting could almost be a BP PR shot!

This time the car was out after completing 9 laps with gearbox dramas- the hot and dusty race was won by Dan Gurney from Graham Hill in BRM P48s- it was the only international win for these cars.

Three weeks later Davison and Stillwell took the cars to Longford- whilst Bib practiced the Aston he raced his Cooper whereas Davo raced to the finish of the 24 lap 100 miler albeit in fifth place behind Roy Salvadori, Bill Patterson, John Youl and Austin Miller in 2.2 litre and 2.5 litre Coventry Climax engined Cooper T51s.

Davison howls off Kings Bridge, Longford during the 1961 ‘Longford Trophy’, Aston DBR4/250 ‘1’ (oldracephotos.com.au/JSaward)

 

Dunlop HQ at Longford in 1961 with Doug Whiteford’s Maserati 300S and Bib Stillwell’s Aston Martin DBR4/250 ‘3’ in attendance. This car was built to a later spec than Davo’s DBR4/250 ‘1’- in fact it was of the same specs of his new in 1961 chassis ‘4’ inclusive of Maser transaxle and ‘80 degree’ engine (R Lambert)

 

Davison, practice at Longford in 1961, DBR4 ‘1’ (G Smedley)

After Longford Lex shipped the car back to the UK, it needed a major rebuild as ‘the chassis was breaking up’ wrote Graham Howard- the AF Hollins crew had repaired chassis tubes and added strengthening gussets to the machine in their Armadale, Melbourne workshop between the Ballarat and Longford meetings.

Lex’ plan was to race an Aston Martin at Le Mans and contest a number of Intercontinental Formula races that ‘61 season. In the event, after ongoing discussions with John Wyer Aston Martin provided Davison a later chassis, ‘the sister car to Stillwell’s later model DBR4’, chassis ‘4’ which was built but unraced in 1959, for Lex to use at Silverstone in July and Brands Hatch in August.

It was equipped, as was chassis ‘1’ with a five speed Maserati transaxle instead of the heavy, recalcitrant David Brown unit, the latest cylinder head design which had the valves arranged at an included angle of 80 degrees rather than the earlier variants 95 degrees- in 3 litre form it was good for circa 296bhp @ 6700rpm, a good deal more mumbo than the 230 or so BHP of an FPF 2.5 but of course the chassis was no svelte nymph.

This article tells a bit of Bib and Lex’ 1961 European Adventures here; https://primotipo.com/2015/09/22/aston-martin-db4gt-zagato-2vev-lex-davison-and-bib-stillwell/

(TC March)

Davo above having his first race in the second Aston DBR4/250 3 litre at Silverstone during the July 8 1961 British Empire Trophy Intercontinental Formula race- DNF gearbox quill-shaft after 17 laps, up front after 245 km were Moss and Surtees in Cooper T53 Climaxes.

Davison had a busy weekend as he contested the GT race in John Ogier’s Aston Martin DB4GT, ‘a bit of an old nail’ and finished third behind the Ferrari 250GTs of Stirling Moss and Graham Whitehead.

The Australian’s DBR4 drive received good press coverage but, Graham Howard wrote that it added to confusion for later historians as to which car Davo raced. The Motor described the machine as an ex-works DBR4 Grand Prix car fitted with a much modified 3 litre sportscar engine, whilst Autosport added to the confusion by noting that ‘a new chassis was fitted.’

Aston Martin themselves didn’t help either, in a letter to Lex about a variety of things including shipment of the car to Australia in late 1961 Wyer advised ‘the Aston had now been shipped, although there had been a mix-up with chassis numbers and it had been stamped DBR4/1 rather than DBR4/4′.

To be clear on this point, Graham Howard makes no comment about the chassis number of Lex’ first Aston, nor does Doug Nye whilst Anthony Pritchard, his book published later, says that the car is generally accepted to be DBR4 ‘1’. John Blanden in the second edition of his book simply lists one car and applies two chassis numbers to the ‘one entity’.

The correct position seems to be that the two cars were quite separate- Lex raced DBR4 ‘1’ in Australia, returned it to Feltham in early 1961 then raced DBR4 ‘4’- the unused 1959 built chassis in the UK and then later in Australia. The chassis, body and engine were different, built to a later spec- whether the Maserati gearbox and other componentry fitted to chassis ‘1’, which was interchangeable, was carried over to ‘4’- who knows.

What is clear is that Lex was not happy with his new car after Silverstone, Autosport quoted Lex as saying its ‘handling was nothing like the original car.’

A month later Davison contested his second and last Intercontinental race, the Guards Trophy at Brands Hatch on 7 August.

This time, in dry, sunny conditions he brought the ‘new dinosaur’ home in sixth place, ‘bruising’ the nose of the car- up front, 4 laps up the road in fact, Jack Brabham headed Jim Clark in Cooper T53 Climax and Lotus 18 Climax respectively.

The relative size of the Aston Martin is put into context by Lorenzo Bandini’s Centro Sud Cooper T51 Maserati going underneath Davison into Surtees at Brands- the Italian was seventh and last of the finishers and several months later was a popular contestant in our 1962 summer internationals.(Getty)

 

Davison cruising through the Silverstone paddock during the July 1961 International Trophy meeting- first race in DBR4/250 ‘4’ (unattributed)

A week or so after Brands the family headed home to Australia with the Aston Martin left behind at the factory for further work including repair of the panel damage sustained at the Kent circuit and to fit 12.5:1 pistons to suit the alcohol based fuel Lex used in Australia.

Howard reports that Davison was still unhappy with the handling of the car, he quotes from a letter written by Lex to Brian Josceleyne of the Aston Martin Owners Club thus, ‘My Grand Prix car is still at the works, where they are endeavouring to sort out some of the handling bugs, for the new chassis proved rather twitchy, unlike my earlier one which was a superb handling car and could be thrown about in a rather flippant way.’

Davo returned home, as stated above, via America including Hawaii, in time to win the AGP in South Australia on 9 October in one of Stillwell’s Cooper T51s, a car he rented from Bib after it became clear the DBR4 would not arrive in Australia on time for the race, that story is here; https://primotipo.com/2018/03/29/the-naughty-corner-renta-gp-winner/

Pat Hawthorn in the second of the Davison DBR4/250 Astons, chassis ‘4’. The eagle eyed will note that the induction and exhaust ports of this car/engine are the reverse of the earlier machine (P Hawthorn)

There was still life in the old design though- Davison raced the Aston Martin to second place in the Victorian Trophy at Calder behind Stillwell’s Cooper T53 Climax in late February 1962 and then, again not too far from home, the Sandown opening meeting ‘Sandown Park International’ on 12 March where he was eighth behind a swag of Climax engined Coopers and Lotuses as well as the Chuck Daigh driven Scarab RE Buick 3.8 litre V8- it too was a mid-engined machine.

By that stage he had ‘got with the strength’ and was racing a Cooper T53 ‘Lowline’ which famously met its maker in a huge accident at Longford on March 4 caused by a gust of wind catching the car whilst airborne on the hump in the road before the Longford pub- it was a very lucky escape. The Yeoman Credit Cooper was geared for 170mph @ 6700rpm that weekend, Davison described the accident, raconteur that he was, to John Wyer in one of the many letters they exchanged.

‘I was managing to lap at 110 to 112 mph, some three seconds faster than Brabham’s lap record of the year before, when I became airborne over a hump some 200 yards prior to a 90-degree corner in the middle of a little town. A gust of wind caught me and I landed in a drain beside the road. I motored along this at some 140 mph causing some uneasiness to the police, radio announcers, officials, television cameramen and various others cluttering up the entrance to the escape road. I regained the road again but the heavy rear-engined end slid in the gravel and I shot down the road sideways. I hit a tree with the nose, which plucked everything forward of the soles of my feet off the car and spun the car around in the process. It then shot along a hotel wall at window height, demolishing the floral display, pot plants etc, then a 360 degree spin around the entrance porch of the hotel and back up the wall again. The car then fell off the hotel wall and back into the road and shot across the road backwards into a grain mill. I shook what was left from me and went back into the pub and ordered a brandy. They even made me pay for it, which was the cruellest blow of all.’

After the international visitors returned home Lex ran the Aston at Sandown in May 1962 winning a race for front engined racing cars but did not run it again until February 1963 when he gave it a gallop at Calder in part to demonstrate it to potential purchasers- in the process he provided 5 thrilling laps for spectators in a three car match race with Bryan Thomson’s supercharged Cooper T51 Climax and Frank Matich’s new, works Elfin Catalina Ford pushrod 1.5.

The Aston Martin was advertised for sale in Australian Motor Sports during 1962 and was soon acquired by garage proprietor and Calder Raceway part owner Pat Hawthorn who is photographed above proudly showing off his new acquisition at his ‘Clayleigh Service Station’ in Clayton, not too far at all from Sandown where, by March 1963, he was mixing it with the heavies in the ‘Sandown Park International’…

Pat Hawthorn on the way to fourth place in the Advertiser Trophy 1963 Mallala Gold Star round- and kids just want to have fun below! Circuit uncertain. Aston Martin DBR4/250 ‘4’ (P Hawthorn)

 

(P Hawthorn)

Hawthorn raced the car through until 1966 in both Victoria and South Australia, perhaps the last championship points the car scored were in the 14 October 1963 Advertiser Trophy, Mallala Gold Star round where he was fourth amongst the mid-engined hordes, behind the Cooper T55 of John Youl, Bib Stillwell’s Brabham BT4 and Wally Mitchell’s MRD (aka Brabham BT1) Ford Formula Junior.

Pat sold the car to UK historic racer Neil Corner in 1966- there he was a consistent race winner, the ‘Calder Raceway’ signed Rice Trailer cut quite a dash on UK Motorways! DBR4 ‘4’ of course still exists.

Aston Martin DBR4/250 cutaway drawing, 95 degree engine spec (conceptbunny.com)

Chassis Numbers and Development of the GP cars in summary…

My ‘standard reference’ for all things chassis numbers is Allen Brown’s great site oldracingcars.com (ORC)- i say great in the sense that most of the ‘standard texts’ were written in the pre-internet days before it was possible to debate the merits of ‘what is what’ and ‘which is which’ amongst knowledgeable enthusiasts to land on generally agreed positions based on facts which have been often vigorously debated.

Using ‘Howard’ (see bibliography) published in 2004, ‘Nye’ in 1993, ‘Blanden’ in 2004, ‘Pritchard’ in 2006 and ‘ORC’ as my source material the Aston Martin Grand Prix cars built are as follows and their destiny, i think and hope…

Reg Parnell does all the work as Peter Whitehead and Tony Gaze share a joke- Aston Martin DP155/1 at the Dunedin Wharf rail head, New Zealand, January 1956 (T Selfe)

1. DP155

Aston’s first ‘toe in the water’ GP exercise was the DB3S based ‘DP155’ i wrote about at length six months ago, its most significant racing was with Reg Parnell at the wheel during the 1956 New Zealand Internationals, click here; https://primotipo.com/2019/09/05/the-gp-aston-martin-dp155/

‘Its bones’ were converted back into a DB3S albeit there is a car doing the rounds in the UK ‘sorta in the style’ of DP155 which has none of the original car’s core componentry.

Getting more serious, in the summer of 1956, Aston Martin’s engineers designed and built a spaceframe chassis to which they fitted a short-stroke version of their 3 litre sportscar ‘RB6’ engine- this 2493cc DOHC, two valve, 50DCO Weber fed engine produced 250bhp @ 7800rpm on the Avgas which was mandatory from 1958.

The design was period typical in having upper and lower wishbone suspension at the front, with torsion bars and co-axial shock absorbers and de Dion rear suspension with torsion bars the springing medium, the axle located by a Watts linkage, radius rods with Armstrong providing the shocks front and rear.

A transaxale was used at the rear- the unpopular with drivers David Brown ‘CG537’ five speeder, Girling provided the brakes, Borrani the wire wheels and initially rack and pinion steering from the Morris Minor was used- later the DB4 rack and pinion was adopted.

Roy Salvadori in practice aboard DBR4 ‘1’ during practice at Zandvoort, 1959 Dutch GP weekend, DNF overheating after 13 laps- Jo Bonnier won in a BRM P25, BRM’s first championship GP win (Getty)

2. DBR4/250 chassis number ‘1’

‘This prototype’ was built in time for testing by Reg Parnell and Roy Salvadori at MIRA in December 1957 and then further testing there into February 1958 before being put to one side as sportscar racing was prioritised.

Stirling Moss as you all know, won the Argentinian GP in a Rob Walker Cooper T45 Climax in early 1958- time was of the essence with the DBR4/250- oh so sexy a beast, it was in effect  obsolete by the time of its public launch in April 1959.

By then the car was fitted with modified DB4GT coil and wishbone front suspension which was more practical than the torsion bar arrangement but was 15 pounds heavier- in a car which was already a pork-chop.

Salvadori’s second in the BRDC International Trophy at Silverstone flattered to deceive- initial problems were an engine at the wrong end of the car (cheap shot), too heavy and most critically engine bearing lubrication issues meant revs had to be kept down to an uncompetitive level.

Aston Martin won Le Mans in 1959- Salvadori and Carroll Shelby took a splendid win in the DBR1 and were poised to win the World Sportscar Championship so the F1 program, rightfully, took second place in the allocation of scarce corporate resources.

In the winter of 1959/1960 chassis ‘1’ and ‘2’ were modified, after surgery they were two inches slimmer and some 55 lb lighter. ‘Merely replacing Brown’s own heavy and baulky ‘CG537′ transaxle with one from Maserati (the Type 5M-60) saved 50 lb. The Aston gearchange, reliable, but heavy and slow- tolerable in a sportscar, was out of place in Formula 1’ Doug Nye wrote.

After negotiations between Davison and Wyer DBR4 ‘1’ was fitted with engine number ‘RB6/300/1’ from sportscar chassis ‘DBR1/1’ and shipped to Australia, John Blanden wrote.

DBR4 ‘1’ was returned to the UK by Davison in early 1961 and was eventually bought by Neil Corner, to use as a spare for his DBR4 ‘4’ he ran in historic racing with chassis ‘1’ built into a complete car by Geoffrey Marsh in the early eighties.

Front and rear suspension of Trintignant’s DBR5 ‘1’, British GP weekend, Silverstone 1960. Upper and lower front wishbones, torsion bar, roll bar, Armstrong shock, Girling solid disc brakes- the major difference to the DBR4 is the use of a torsion bar instead of a coil spring. De Dion rear suspension, Armstrong shock and radius rods- same as DBR4 (Getty)

 

Carroll Shelby during the 1959 Portuguese GP at Monsanto Park, eighth in DBR4 ‘2’, Moss the winner in a Cooper T51 Climax (LAT)

3. DBR4/250 ‘2’

Was Carroll Shelby’s chassis in 1959, and like ‘1’ contested only the Dutch, British and Portuguese GPs that year.

1959/1960 winter modifications as above.

DBR4 ‘2’ was scrapped.

Bib Stillwell susses the equipment, DBR4 ‘3’ in the Ardmore paddock, NZ 1962 (E Stevens)

4. DBR4/250 ‘3’

This car was lighter than the first two cars built by virtue of a stressed skin body centre section, one piece de Dion tube and lighter Maserati gearbox- its race debut was at Monza in September 1959.

Salvadori retired it whilst running sixth- Moss won in a Walker Cooper T51 Climax. Front engined Ferrari 246 and BRM P25s filled six of the top eight places so a good front-engined machine could still do well- on fast circuits at least!

Stillwell bought the car on a bit of a whim, frustrated as he was by not being able to buy a 2.5 litre Coventry Climax FPF engine for his Cooper T51 at the time- the motors were in short supply, allocation preference was to the ‘works favoured or contracted’ Cooper, Walker and Lotus teams.

In the event, no sooner had Bib committed to the Aston Martin, he was able to buy the Cooper T51 Jack Brabham had raced in Australia that year, fitted with a 2.5 litre FPF.

In fact the Kew, Melbourne Holden Dealer had possibly fallen out of love with the Aston before its arrival to Australia- Bib raced his new 2.5 litre T51 to first at Port Wakefield in October, then second at Caversham and third at Phillip Island on consecutive December weekends and finally topped his late season form by winning the (non Gold Star) Warwick Farm Trophy on 18 December, whilst back in fourth place was Lex’ DBR4 surrounded by a sea of Cooper T45/51s…

Fitted with 3 litre ‘RB6/300/7’ sportscar engine, DBR4/250 ‘3’ arrived in Australia late in 1960 and was almost immediately shipped to New Zealand to contest the NZ GP at Ardmore, Auckland in early January 1961- he placed fifth in a heat and was classified twelfth in the GP- Jack Brabham won in a Cooper T53 Climax.

Bib Stillwell’s Aston DBR4 ‘3’ in the Ardmore paddock during the January 1961 NZ GP weekend. Jo Bonnier’s Cooper T51 Climax right rear, David McKay’s Stan Jones owned Maserati 250F #12 and the #38 Cooper is uncertain- Denny Hulme drove a car with that number in this race but the car shown is not the dark coloured Yeoman Credit T51 Denny raced (TRS)

 

A nice compare and contrast shot- Stan Jones’ Cooper T51 Climax alongside Stillwell’s DBR4 ‘3’ before practice at Longford in March 1961

Back In Australia, he practiced the car for the Warwick Farm 100 in late January but did not race, running the T51 he finished third behind the Moss and Innes Ireland Lotus 18 Climaxes. The crew then took the car across Bass Straight to Longford in early March and practiced it, but the engine burned a piston, he raced his Cooper T51, retiring with plug problems in the Longford Trophy won by Roy Salvadori’s Ecurie Vitesse (Jack Brabham) Cooper T51 Climax.

Bib continued to race his T51 but returned with the Aston Martin to Warwick Farm in May, winning the (non Gold Star) 10 lap Racing Car Scratch from Alec Mildren’s Cooper T51 Maserati 2.9 and Noel Hall’s Cooper T51 Climax 2.2- was this the only race win of a DBR4 ‘in period’ anywhere?

And that was it, Bib displayed the car at Jim Abbott’s Melbourne Racing Car show in August before racing it again in the 1962 NZ GP, doubtless, given his flotilla of Coopers, with a view to selling the car in New Zealand. He was tenth in the sopping wet race won by Stirling Moss having qualified seventh inclusive of a plug-change mid-race.

Bay of Islands driver Lionel Bulcraig acquired the car after the race, running it in NZ through to 1965, his time in the car is covered here; https://primotipo.com/2019/09/02/waimates-aston-martin-dbr4-250/

Bulcraig advertised the car in ‘Car and Driver, the American international magazine, in late 1965, it was acquired by Peter Brewer who dominated Historic Racing in the UK in the late sixties with it. It was bought by Tom Wheatcroft’s Donington Collection in 1970 as ‘a collection of horrible bits’, as Doug Nye described it, for restoration to original 1959 specifications.

Stillwell, DBR4 ‘3’ during the 1962 NZ GP, site of a Stirling Moss Lotus 21 Climax wet weather master-class. Stillwell was tenth, 6 laps in arrears (Ardmore)

 

DBR4 ‘3’ chassis in recent times in the Hall & Hall workshop. Rare chassis photograph (H&H)

 

Plug change for Salvadori’s IRS ‘diabolical handling’ DBR5 ‘2’ during the 1960 British GP weekend, nice cockpit shot. Trintignant’s de Dion DBR5 ‘1’ in front (Getty)

5. DBR4/250 ‘4’

Chassis built at the same time as ‘3’ but was unraced in F1 in 1959 and 1960.

After DBR4 ‘1’ was returned by Davison to Feltham in early 1961, DBR4 ‘4’ was built to ‘ultimate spec’- de Dion rear, Maserati gearbox, 80 degree head magnesium alloy block RB6/300 engine specification for use in the Intercontinental Formula in the UK, and thence limited use in Australia before sale to Pat Hawthorn in early 1963.

Later to Neil Corner in 1966, who also acquired DBR4 ‘1’ which was eventually built up as an historic car.

Trintignant’s DBR5/250 ‘1’ being unloaded from Aston Martin’s AEC transporter at Silverstone during the July 1960 British GP weekend at Silverstone- a poor eleventh the result (LAT)

Cars 6. and 7. DBR5/250 ‘1’ and ‘2’- also sometimes referred to as ‘DP201’

For 1960 Aston Martin designed a new car, still front engined mind you, the DBR5/250 was 3 inches shorter than the DBR4- the wheelbase was 7 ft 3 inches- it used torsion bar independent front suspension. Two cars were laid down, DBR5/250 ‘1’ which was built with a de Dion rear and chassis ‘2’ which was fitted with independent rear suspension by torsion bars.

Both DBR5s were scrapped- after unsuccessful performances in the International Trophy, at Zandvoort and in the British GP.

Doug Nye wrote that ‘The new rear end merely made the cars handle worse, so following the British GP, David Brown wisely withdrew his team from the dying Formula’- the 2.5 litre F1 ended on 31 December 1960.

In summary, Aston Martin built seven Grand Prix cars- one DP155, four DBR4s and two DBR5’s with three extant- DBR4 ‘1’, ‘3’ and ‘4’.

Zandvoort 1960- two cars for Roy Salvadori- DBR4 ‘3’ at left was brought along as the practice hack and DBR5 ‘1’ at right, the racer. DNS along with the Scarabs when the Dutch GP organisers reneged on the start money deal- the cars were rumbling back towards the Channel by the time the race commenced- nice side by side shot, the only obvious difference is the 95 degree engine in the DBR4 and 80 degree ‘exhaust on the left’ motor in the DBR5 (D Friedman)

 

DBR5 ‘1’ with Lucas fed 80 degree twin-plug 2.5 litre six- 245bhp @ 7500rpm, Zandvoort 1960 (D Friedman)

Anthony Pritchard wrote that ‘By this time (Zandvoort) Aston Martin realised the hopelessness of their position.’

Team Manager Reg Parnell asked Stirling Moss to try the car and the best that he could manage was a 1:40 compared to 1:33.2 in his Lotus 18 Climax- trying his very hardest, Salvadori achieved 1:37 seconds.

Zandvoort, (D Friedman)

 

British GP July 1960. Nice compare and contrast of the Weber DCO and Lucas injected engines. Independent rear suspension shot is Salvadori’s DBR5 ‘2’ which handled atrociously- upper and lower wishbones, roll bar, Armstrong shock and two radius rods, torsion bar (Getty)

Etcetera…

(Michael Oliver Collection)

After publication Lotus historian and author Michael Oliver got in touch and sent these two marvellous shots of Lex during the Brands Hatch Guards Trophy meeting taken by his father, and his dad’s mate below.

Whilst Lex damaged the nose of the car during practice he also knocked off the right-front corner of the Aston- the shot captures the damage, a rare colour image of the suspension.

(Michael Oliver Collection)

Photo Credits…

Peter D’Abbs via Mark Ellery Collection, Pat Hawthorn Collection via Russell Hawthorn, Phillip Skelton via the Tony Johns Collection, Getty Images, Ron Lambert, oldracephotos.com.au/JSaward, Peter Coleby Collection, Tony Selfe, David Friedman Collection, LAT, E Stevens, Brier Thomas, Hall & Hall, TC March, conceptbunny.com, Michael Oliver Collection

Bibliography…

‘Lex Davison: Larger Than Life’ Graham Howard, ‘History of The Grand Prix Car 1945-65’ Doug Nye, ‘Aston Martin: A Racing History’ Anthony Pritchard, ‘Historic Racing Cars in Australia’ John Blanden, oldracingcars.com

Tailpieces…

(P D’Abbs)

The opening shot of Lex again but cropped a tad tighter to focus that little bit more on the car- DBR4/250 ‘1’, and below the same car eighteen months before in the Dutch sand dunes rather than the Australian ones, Roy Salvadori at Zandvoort during the 29-31 May weekend in 1959.

(LAT)

Finito…

(R Meyer)

Leo Geoghegan’s Holden 48-215 from Frank Hamm’s Jaguar Mk5, Bathurst, Easter 1959…

I’m not sure if this is the parade lap described below or a race but the presence of the sportscar in amongst the touring cars suggests the former.

The stunning series of photographs are uber-rare ones from the inside of Conrod Straight, the cars have just cleared Forrests Elbow and are winding up in top gear. The kid standing on the fence is Rick Meyer, his father took these wonderful rare photos trackside, ‘locals’ photographs.

The Easter meeting was the Gold Star round traditionally- there are a huge number of past, current and future top liners or champions amongst the entry list. ‘Currents’ include Stan Jones, Doug Whiteford, Ross Jenson, Curley Brydon, Jack Myers, Jack Murray and David McKay. ‘Future stars’ are Len Lukey, Alec Mildren and Bill Patterson- Gold Star winners in 1959, 1960 and 1961 respectively, Lionel Ayers, Glynn Scott, Arnold Glass, Frank Matich, Ron Phillips, Ron Hodgson, Doug Chivas, Leo Geoghegan, John French, Des West, Max Volkers, Brian Foley, Ian Geoghegan, Brian Muir and ‘Ken’ Bartlett- no doubt Kevin Bartlett learned the value of clean, clear hand-writing on entry forms when he perused the race program at the circuit!

The photo below is from the same spot and shows reigning World Champ Jack Brabham on the 2 October 1960 weekend when the local boy returned to Australia having retained his F1 drivers title, to win the ‘Craven A International’ from a classy field of locals.

The Cooper T51 Climax leads the similar white-coloured machine of 1961 Australian Gold Star Champion, Bill Patterson. Patterson was second in the race with Bib Stillwell, also T51 equipped in third- he is probably that flash of red car behind Patto.

(R Meyer)

The photo below is again Geoghegan who is about to take, perhaps, Barry Gurdon’s Austin on the run down Conrod, or is it a Triumph Herald? By this stage Leo’s car is very quick and much modified- light weight, it has a Repco Hi-Power cylinder head and multiple SU carbs, is fitted with an MG TC gearbox, slippery diff and disc front brakes.

The introduction of the Australian Touring Car Championship from 1 January 1960 run to Appendix J regulations would reign-in the ‘costs out of hand’ development of touring cars without in any way constraining the appeal of tin-top racing to either spectators or owner-drivers.

(R Meyer)

Beautiful picture of the Les Wheeler funded, Gordon Stewart designed and built Stewart MG…

Believe it or not this very advanced car was concepted and constructed in the early fifties around a tubular steel spaceframe chassis, MG TC engine and brakes. With a Bob Baker built body, modified in the nose here, it first raced at Mount Druitt in 1955.

(R Meyer)

The engine was 1350cc in capacity and fitted with a Laystall crank and locally made rods. By the time the car appeared lots of serious stuff from Europe was racing locally so it missed the boat a bit as a potential ‘outright’ contender but its 1957 Gordon Stewart driven 142 mph made it the fastest TC speed ever over Bathurst’s Flying One-Eighth!

Here, Dick Willis says the car is supercharged ‘B-Series’ BMC powered, still with Gordon at the wheel. This car is extant and a wonderful feature article, such is its conceptual design and execution, for another time.

(D Willis)

A bit more from Dick Willis, here the Stewart MG crew- ‘Ecurie Cinque’ at Mount Druitt probably in 1958. ‘Jim Robson (at right) of Silverdale fame was a technical writer for Riley (Nuffield) before the war writing workshop manuals etc. After the war he emigrated to Australia and soon struck up a friendship with the like, Nuffield minded, Gordon Stewart- Jim was one of the team who developed the Stewart MG…’

Credits…

Rick Meyer, Dick Willis, Paul Newby

Tailpiece: Finish as we started, neighbour still with hands on hips and the obedient Rick still on and behind the fence!…

(R Meyer)

Cars are Horst Kwech’s RM Spyder (Buchanan body) and Tom Sulman’s Aston Martin DB3S during the Easter 1960 meeting.

Paul Newby explains that Horst Kwech built the RM Spyder whilst working at Regional Motors in Cooma- New South Wales sub-alpine country, hence the ‘RM’. It comprised a Buchanan bodied upside-down Singer chassis powered by a Repco Hi-Power headed Holden ‘Grey’ six-cylinder engine and still exists in Canberra.

Finito…

 

 

 

(Theo Page)

The Cooper Mark 1 (later referred to as T41) was the Surbiton marques prototype or first mid-engined F2 car…

Note that there were also Mk1, 2, 3 etc air-cooled Coopers, the T41 was typically fitted with a Coventry Climax 1.5 litre FWB SOHC, two-valve engine.

This article was spawned by Theo Page’s Type 41 cutaway above. I thought ‘that would be nice to add to an existing article on the Paul England/Austin Miller car’ and then I came upon T45, multiple T51 drawings as well as the ‘Lowline’ T53 so the idea of a piece on the early water-cooled mid engined Coopers popped into my head.

I knew the John Ross and Dave Friedman archives had some great workshop/circuit photographs of the cars engineering detail but that was going to create too much visual clutter so the article is in two parts.

The first bit is the overall story- Who, What, Where and When if you like, the second is more around the design and engineering of the cars with photographs providing great visual support. An ‘eyeful is better than an earful’ and all that.

In terms of photographs I’ve already written a lot of Cooper articles, often ‘quickies’ with all of the best Australian photographs I could find contained therein- rather than re-use these, key ‘Cooper Climax’ and ‘Cooper Maserati’ into the search spot on the upper left primo home page and you can check them out at your leisure, I have sought photos hopefully many of you have never seen before- other than a few Kiwis anyway!

Off we go.

Wally Baker Cooper Mk8 Norton, South Canterbury Hillclimb circa 1960. ‘Clellands Zig Zag’, near Cave, on the east of NZ’s South Island. The road is tarmac these days (CAN)

 

1949 Cooper Mk3 JAP (Getty)

If John and Charles Cooper’s first mid-engined Coopers of 1948 set the company on a path to change the face of motor racing, the T41 hastened the onslaught on the long established (Auto Union pre-war duly noted) front engine motor racing paradigm.

Lets not forget the performance of the Cooper Bristols Mk1 and Mk II or T20 and T23 which were born as F2 machines and became Grand Prix cars with the adoption of F2 to determine the drivers and manufacturers championships in 1952 and 1953.

Those cars ‘launched the careers’ of a swag of top line pilots not least two World Champions in Mike Hawthorn and Jack Brabham.

The performance of the T39 ‘Bobtail’ and T40 Bristol which Jack ‘knocked together from the Cooper parts bin’, and in which he made his F1 Championship debut at Aintree in 1955- and aboard which he won the Australian Grand Prix at Port Wakefield later that year, emboldened human dynamo John Cooper to build a mid-engined car for the new 1.5 litre F2 which took effect from 1 January 1957.

Jack Brabham in his famous ‘REDeX Special’ Cooper T23 Bristol in the backyard of his parents house in Hurstville, Sydney circa 1953 (HRCCT)

 

Cooper Mk1 or T20 Bristol (Vic Berris)

 

Reg Hunt’s Len Lukey driven Cooper T23 Bristol during the 1956 AGP weekend at Albert Park. Doncha think blokes look at racing cars in the same way they check out chicks- with absolute focus, totally oblivious of anything else going on in the immediate environs? Ninth in the race won by the Moss works Maserati 250F (G Smedley)

 

Colvin Algie, Normac/AC Special about to be lapped by Brian Pescott, Cooper T23 Bristol and Angus Hyslop, Jag D during the 1959 Ahuriri Road Races- Port Ahuriri, Napier, NZ North Island. JW Lawton Cooper 2 litre won from DC Hulme Cooper T45 FPF 2 litre and Pescott (CAN)

 

Brabham in his 1955 British GP debut/AGP Port Wakefield winning Cooper T40 Bristol, here at Mount Druitt, Sydney, probably also 1955 (Uni Newcastle)

In the UK six F2 races were held between the 14 July Silverstone British GP support race won by Roy Salvadori’s works T41 Climax FWB and the 14 October BRSCC Brands Hatch race won by the RRC Walker Racing T41 similarly engined car. The new T41’s won five of the six races, Salvadori four and Brooks one. Colin Chapman won at Brands on 9 September in a Lotus 11 FWB sportscar, an occasion where the T41’s were absent.

Finally the Brits had, in Coventry Climax, a manufacturer of modern, competitive engines which were available to all who could stump up the readies. During 1957 the SOHC, two-valve FWB was supplemented by the twin-cam, two valve FPF putting in place the family of engines which carted away two F1 titles in 1959/60.

Similarly, Cooper built cars for all.

There is other ‘confluential’ stuff which contributed to Cooper’s rise and rise too;

Jack Brabham arrived at Cooper in 1954 with his unique blend of driving, testing, mechanical and engineering skills. The energy of Jack and John Cooper must have been a truly awesome thing to watch- I’m not so sure I would have wanted to work for them but to view it all from the sidelines would have been quite something.

RRC Walker racing ‘attached themselves’ to the lads from Surbiton, specifically the contributions of Walker RRC, Moss S, and Francis A were mega, as we will see.

Not to forget the son and father combination of John Cooper, a racer to the core, and Charles Cooper who kept the business alive and well. As anyone who has run a small business well knows keeping an enterprise afloat is not easy especially in the fickle ‘only as good as yer last race’ world of motor racing. Cooper Cars was highly profitable throughout with John selling at ‘the right time’ a decade hence not too long after Charles died.

Where were we?- back to the Mark 1, or make that, for me, T41!

John Cooper and Owen Maddock produced a car which was strongly based on the T39 albeit the machine was ‘slipper bodied’ rather than having the all-enveloping body of the other car. Similarly it had independent suspension front and rear using top transverse leaf springs and wishbones at the bottom.

Jack, T41 Climax at Caversham during the 1957 F Libre AGP. Modern as tomorrow Cooper a contrast with the partial nose of the Fred Coxon Amilcar Holden Spl behind (K Devine)

 

Brabham, T41 FWB on his way to third in the 1957 AGP behind the Ferrari 500 3 litre of Lex Davison/Bill Patterson and Stan Jones Maserati 250F (D Van Dal)

 

Lady Wigram Trophy 1957. They are off, F Libre- Brabham in T41 FWB against the ‘Big Red Cars’- Reg Parnell and Peter Whitehead Ferrari 555/860 and Ron Roycroft in the light coloured Ferrari 375. D Type is Bob Gibbons, Syd Jensen, Cooper T41 Climax and Horace Gould, Maser 250F #2 on row 2. Look at the size of the Brabham and Jensen Coopers in relation to the Ferrari’s (CAN)

 

Austin Miller, Cooper T41 Climax leads Bill Patterson, Cooper T39 Bobtail Climax off Long Bridge, Longford during the 1958 Gold Star round won by Ted Gray’s big, booming Tornado 2 Chev. Both of these fellas progressed to T51’s, Patto won the 1961 Gold Star in one of his. He owned more Coopers in Australia than anyone?- perhaps Stillwell and Jones count was similar. Paul England raced Austin’s T41 in the 1957 German GP- DNF distributor after 4 laps

The production 1957 Mark II (T43) was settled upon that winter and put into build at Hollyfield Road.

It had a longer wheelbase that the Mk1 and bulkier bodywork to accommodate two pannier fuel tanks rather than the scuttle tank of the Mark 1- the suspension was the same as the earlier car, the drooped nose was a means of distinguishing between Coopers very latest offering and its predecessor.

Brabham debuted the Coventry Climax FPF engine- it took its bow at the 1956 London Motor Show, in the first race of the year, the Lavant Cup at Goodwood on 22 April finishing second to Tony Brooks Walker T41 FWB. Initially the 1475cc engine developed 141bhp @ 7300rpm and most importantly a swag of torque from 4000rpm- it’s peak was 108.5 lb-ft @ 6500rpm. The pint sized package weighed only 225 pounds.

It was a year of F2 dominance for the marque- in sixteen national and international races  Brabham won five, Tony Marsh, George Wicken and Roy Salvadori two apiece and Tony Brooks and Ronnie Moore one. Tom Dickson won at Snetterton in May aboard a Lotus 11 FWA when no T41/43 was present, Maurice Trintignant was victorious at Reims in a Ferrari 156 and Edgar Barth in a Porsche 550RS at the Nürburgring but otherwise it was all Cooper.

Pescara GP 1957. Jack in front and Roy Salvadori behind, Cooper T43 FPF 2 litre- 7th and DNF from Q16 and 15. Moss won aboard a Vanwall VW (57)

 

Dunedin International Road Race 1958. McLaren, T43 Climax #47, Syd Jensen, Cooper MkX Norton with #51 Geoff Mardon, VA Vanguard and Merv Neil in another T43 alongside. You can just see the Frank Cantwell Tojeiro Jag at left rear. Ross Jensen Maser 250F won from McLaren and Syd Jensen (CAN)

Meanwhile in Europe privateers were racing the cars in non-championship Grands Prix. George Wicken took his T43 FPF to Siracusa in early April DNF, Brabham was fourth in the Glover Trophy at Goodwood behind two F1 Connaught B Types and a BRM P25. Salvadori was second at the GP de Caen in July behind Behra’s BRM P25 but ahead of four Maserati 250F’s, a car Roy knew rather well.

In the BRDC International Trophy Innes Ireland’s T43 was sixth in his heat and Brabham second in his. Fourteen Cooper T41/43’s contested this race, the best placed was Salvadori in eighth behind BRM P25’s and Maserati 250F.

With a 2 litre FPF available Cooper ran a limited World Championship campaign that year, the best results were Salvadori’s fifth at Aintree and Brabham’s sixth at Monaco. Doug Nye explained how the 2 litre variant came about.

Early in 1957 Roy Salvadori tested Rob Walker’s F2 T41 and F1 Connaught Type B on the same day at Goodwood. He quickly realised the potential pace of a water cooled mid-engined Cooper and floated the idea of increasing the capacity of the FPF enough to tackle GP racing.

Soon, with Walkers financial backing- Rob ordered a chassis and 2 litre engine, the project was underway. Climax’ changes involved increasing the bore and stroke which required new pistons, liners and crank- the result, with only two days fettling was an astonishing 176bhp @ 6500rpm. Brabham used the engine at Monaco and ran as high as third before pushing the car over the line in sixth after fuel pump failure.

At the end of Jack’s European season he came home for the summer commencing his race campaign with the Australian Grand Prix at Caversham, an ex-airbase circuit out of Perth.

His T41 qualfied and finished third behind the Formula Libre 3 litre Ferrari 500 of Lex Davison/Bill Patterson and Stan Jones’ Maserati 250F.

The 1958 Mark III (T45) added significant refinement in that the front suspension was changed to use coil springs and both upper and lower wishbones. At the rear the transverse leaf remained with upper lateral links added which released the spring to do just that, relieved of its additional wheel locational function.

Coventry Climax chief Leonard Lee had endorsed a further increase in the capacity of the FPF to 2.2 litres, the maximum the original block could accommodate. Production of these engines was geared around resourcing two car Cooper and Rob Walker Cooper entries.

The F2 Index lists twenty F2 races in 1958 with Cooper T43/45 victory honours shared widely. Brabham and Bruce McLaren- Jack brought Bruce to Europe that year after Bruce had much Cooper success at home, had three wins each, Moss and Ian Burgess two, with one each to Stuart Lewis-Evans, Kiwi, Syd Jensen, Maurice Trintignant, Henry Taylor, Tim Parnell and Jim Russell.

The big news of course was Stirling Moss’ win aboard Rob Walker’s T43 in the Argentinian Grand Prix.

The car was fitted that day with one of the 1960cc FPF’s. Continental tyres contributed too, he ran on them from start to finish in place of his usual Dunlops. Vanwall, to whom Moss was contracted in F1 that year chose not to travel to Argentina given its cost, distance and because Tony Vandervell’s engines were not quite running well enough on Avgas just yet- there were new fuel regulations in place from 1 January.

So Walker and Moss decided to have a crack at the race- and won! Use of Continentals was Rob Walker firing a shot across Dunlop’s bows ‘because they weren’t being very helpful on tyres at the time’ Doug Nye quoted Walker as saying in ‘The History of The Grand Prix Car’. The Conti’s were were worn through to the canvas at the end of the race- Ferrari fell for the ruse of a prospective tyre change when Alf Francis and another mechanic paraded with wheels and jacks in the pitlane for a stop which was never planned to happen.

In non-championship GP’s Moss won the Aintree BARC 200 in April and the GP de Caen, on both occasions aboard a Cooper T45.

In Australia we were all excited by Cooper pace watching Moss and Brabham face-off in the Melbourne Grand Prix at Albert Park, the last race at the Park until the modern era, won in searing heat by the Walker/Moss T45.

Roy Salvadori leads the marauding pack into the first turn at Monaco in 1958. He is followed by #6 Jean Behra, BRM P25, Tony Brooks Vanwall with #28 Stirling Moss, Vanwall. Brabham is to the right out of shot. Maurice Trintignant won in Walkers Cooper T45 with a bit of luck in a race full of DNF’s and clever strategy. Brabham Q3 and 4th, Roy Q4 and DNF gearbox (Getty)

 

Equipe Lukey during the 1959 AGP weekend at Longford, Cooper T45 2 litre FPF Climax. With a 2.5 FPF Len Lukey would have won in his ex-Brabham machine, but Stan Jones prevailed in a close tussle in his Maser 250F by 2 seconds (Walkem)

 

Bruce’ works T45 in the Ardmore NZ GP paddock 1960- Jim Palmer’s Lotus 15 Climax and Pat Hoare, Ferrari 256 behind. Brabham’s works T51 first- then Bruce and Stillwell and Stan Jones in T51’s (CAN)

At championship level Cooper enjoyed considerable success in addition to the Walker/Moss Argentine win.

Salvadori was second at the Nürburgring, third in Britain and fourth at Zandvoort whereas Jack was fourth at Monaco.

The 2.2 litre FPF made its debut at Monaco in the Salvadori/Brabham works cars. There, Maurice Trintignant ran a Walker T45 with an interim 2015cc engine and centre lock detachable Borrani wire wheels and in a crazy race of attrition, he won- two races on the trot for the RRC Walker Racing new-fangled Coopers!

In the more open faster races of the season the Coopers were simply giving away too much capacity but that would be remedied in 1959.

T51 Climax (T Matthews)

The 1959 Mark IV (T51) was identical in terms of chassis and suspension to the Mark III- the technical details of which are dealt with in the second part of this article.

It was one of the great customer racing cars of all time in that so many were sold (28 orders according to period factory records but the actual number of chassis built was far greater than this) and so many used it to win for two or three years hence in all corners of the globe.

Interesting insights by Cooper historian Doug Nye are voluminous and fascinating not least the fact that Coopers weren’t all factory constructed by Cooper staff. Some were, but others were built up by customer team mechanics at Cooper or using a ‘kit of parts’ provided by Cooper and built up elsewhere. The ‘kits’ could be complete or otherwise which is reflected in the many different details between cars which are nominally of the same model type.

The British Racing Partnership/Yeoman Credit take on a Cooper T51 Climax at Monaco in 1960- Tony Brooks Q3 and 4th-Moss won in a Walker Lotus 18. Compare the bodywork and detail of this car with the ‘factory standard’ car of Noel Hall below (D Friedman)

 

Noel Hall’s Cooper T51 Climax at Lowood, Qld in 1959. Probably during one of the two Lowood Gold Star rounds (unattributed)

Whilst, as noted above, the T51 chassis and related componentry inclusive of the gearbox was carried over from the T45, the critical aspect of the package essential for ultimate success was redesign of the FPF to the maximum allowable F1 capacity limit of 2.5 litres unsupercharged.

The 2.2’s of 1958 were fragile at the margin, the block and crankcase had been weakened in the process of taking the engine from its original 1.5 litres to a smidge over 2.2. The crank counter-weights could not be enlarged and as a consequence the motor vibrated and ran roughly- its life was usually short if over-revved.

Walter Hassan’s redesign started as late as 1 December 1958.

A new block was made by Birmal in light alloy integrating both the block and crankcase and extended from 3 1/2 inches below the crankshaft to 8 5/32 inches above it, Nye wrote. The bore/stroke was 94mm x 89.9mm for a capacity of 2495cc. Cast iron wet liners were used and a five main bearing crank. Beneath the crank was a jackshaft which carried three oil pumps- one pressure and two scavenge. The engine was ‘cross-bolted’- eight studs each side of the block screwed into the main caps.

The two valve, DOHC engine, as before, had its cams driven by a train of gears. The Mk1 2.5 litre heads had 1 1/2 inch bore ports feeding 1.937 inch inlet valves and 1.687 exhausts. Nye notes the engine was ‘under-valved’ initially in case of structural deficiency elsewhere. Fitted with twin-Weber 58 DCO carbs the engine revved happily to 7000rpm developing circa 240bhp @ 6750rpm and ‘pulled like a train from as little as 4000rpm’. Remember that the 2207cc unit produced 194bhp.

Brabham would have well and truly noticed the weight gain mind you- the 1.5 FPF weighed 225lb, the new 2.5 290lb.

Doncha hate thoughtless crops! Headless Repco technician, probably Michael Gasking, with an FPF bottom end in the Repco Engine Lab, Richmond circa 1963 which means its probably one of Jack’s 2.7 ‘Indy’ spec engines used in the NZ/Oz pre-Tasman F Libre days. Note the beefy steel Laystall crank, deep block as per text and row of holes ‘at the top’ for the cross-bolt studs. It’s a story in itself but Repco were licensed or approved by Climax to look after the FPF’s which extended to manufacture of rings, bearings and pistons with CC providing block and head castings which were machined by Repco. Brabham was the first ‘customer’ (M Gasking)

Cooper’s factory drivers changed in 1959 as Roy Salvadori, for years a contracted Aston Martin driver, committed himself to David Brown’s old-school front-engined cars in F1 as well as their sportscar program.

It was a remarkably loyal call by Roy but one not readily understood given his back to back test of Rob Walker’s old and new cars only twelve months or so ago. Roy was very much the quicker of he and Jack in 1958 and really was in the box seat with all of the knowledge about what was coming down the Cooper pike…A Le Mans win together with Carroll Shelby that summer was some compensation for the Aston Martin DBR4 which was ‘too little too late’ without getting lost in that tangent.

John Cooper therefore recruited Masten Gregory and promoted Bruce to the F1 squad with Jack’s unique contribution in and out of the car ongoing.

Vanwall withdrew from Grand Prix racing, and soon altogether, so Stirling Moss raced Rob Walker’s Coopers. The primary difference in specification between the works cars and Walker’s were that John Cooper didn’t provide his you-beaut modified ERSA gearboxes. Walker was left to his one devices, contracting Valerio Colotti to build transmissions, which it transpired failed repeatedly.

In some ways it could be said 1959-1960 were the years of the gearboxes. Moss would have won in 1959 had the Colotti’s held together in the Walker 51 and a Lotus 18, ‘the car of 1960’ would perhaps have won in 1960 were it not for the unreliability of Colin Chapman’s sequential ‘Queerboxes’.

Having said that Cooper created their own luck by building modified versions of the Citroen-ERSA boxes in 1959 and the Owen Maddock designed, Jack Knight built ‘Cooper-Knight CS5’ transaxle in 1960.

Ifs, buts and maybes mean nothing in motor racing- but they are interesting all the same!

Chassis #F2-16-59 , Noel Hall’s T51 was a new car ex-factory, fitted with a 2.2 litre FPF, here outside his garage business- where was that? (J Ellacott)

Jack Brabham won the 1959 title with 31 points from Tony Brooks, Ferrari Dino 246 and Vanwall on 27, Moss 25 1/2 and Phil Hill, Ferrari Dino 246 on 20 points.

The season was open in that Brabham, Brooks and Moss won two races apiece- Monaco and Aintree for Jack, Nürburgring and Reims for Tony and Monsanto and Monza fell to Stirling.

Moss lost the Monaco and Zandvoort leads- and was out early at Monza due to Colotti failure. But the works-boxes were marginal too and Jack nursed them, there is little doubt he had greater mechanical sympathy than Moss- and most other drivers for that matter. One does often make ones own luck in all forms of human endeavour.

2.2 Coventry Climax engine detail and ‘curvaceous’ Maddock frame (J Ellacott)

Both Jo Bonnier and Bruce McLaren took their first Championship Grand Prix wins that year- at Zandvoort (also his last) and Sebring aboard BRM P25 and Cooper T51 respectively.

Five non-championship events were held in 1959 and there, too the Coopers were dominant- T51’s took the Glover Trophy at Goodwood- Moss from Brabham powered by their brand new Coventry Climax 2.5 litre FPF’s, the International Gold Cup at Oulton Park went to the Moss/Walker Cooper and Jack bagged the BRDC International Trophy at Silverstone.

Front-engined non-champ victories went to Jean Behra’s Ferrari Dino 246 at Aintree- the BARC 200 and to Ron Flockhart’s BRM P25 at Snetterton in October- the Silver City Trophy.

This is one of my favourite Cooper shots- Harry Schell in a delicate, high speed Yeoman Credit T51 Madgwick drift at Goodwood during the April 1960 Glover Trophy. DNF engine after 20 laps. Ireland’s Lotus 18 won from the T51’s of Moss and Chris Bristow (Getty)

 

Jack with T51 in the Longford paddock 1960. Is that Alec Mildren in the striped shirt? Jack won in ‘F2-4-59’?) from Mildren’s T51 Maserati and Bib Stillwell, T51 Climax. Lovely atmo shot! Big, hungry DCO mouths (R Lambert)

Cooper were more dominant in Formula 2 where Coopers T43, T45 and T51 ‘cleaned up’.

The most successful combination of the year was Moss at the wheel of Rob Walker’s Borgward engined T43 and T45 with four wins. Tim Parnell and Chris Bristow took three apiece, Brabham two and one each for a lengthy rollcall- Jim Russell, Henry Taylor, Jack Lewis, Maurice Trintignant, Roy Salvadori, Harry Schell, Stan Hart, Trevor Taylor, Ron Carter and Tony Marsh. Amazing really, Cooper built and sold a lotta motor cars!

Moss’ Walker T51 Climax in the Ardmore paddock, NZ GP 1960. Moss DNF clutch after 27 laps- Brabham T51 won from McLaren T45 and Stillwell T51, Bib’s 2.2 the other two fellas 2.5’s (LibNZ)

At the European seasons end Moss, Brabham and McLaren headed south to the Antipodes for what would become an annual trip to race hard in the sun and play hard in the sun…

The NZ GP at Ardmore was won by Jack’s T51 as was the Longford Trophy in early March.

The Surbiton boys received a rude awakening when they fronted up in Argentina on 7 February with their T51’s to be comprehensively blown off by Innes Ireland’s new Lotus 18 Climax- Chapman’s first crack at a mid-engine design was a rather successful one in FJ, F2 and F1…

Bruce won the race after the Lotus failed but Jack DNF’d with heat-treating failure in his ERSA gearbox.

Suitably chastened the Cooper crew famously began the design of what became the Cooper T53 ‘Lowline’ on the long haul flights back to the UK. Doug Nye records that they landed in Heathrow on 17 March with the 14 May Silverstone International Trophy the deadline for completion of new cars.

Mike Barney preparing Jack and Bruce #18 T53 Climax in the Reims paddock in 1960- first and third, Jack won from pole. Technical details as per second part of the article but note the ‘bungy’ retained huge ally fuel tanks and relative height of T53 compared with T45/51

A head start was provided by Owen Maddock’s Cooper-Knight CS5 gearbox- it was just entering limited volume production in Knight’s workshops. McLaren’s College drawing skills were deployed to assist Maddock with Jack providing thought leadership and sketching whilst John chased suppliers for parts.

In essence the T53 was longer, sleeker, lower and lighter with a new, reliable gearbox able to take the loads of the more powerful FPF 2.5- itself mounted a smidge lower in the stronger in torsional stiffness by 25% (over the T51) Lowline frame- in the final year of the long-lived, very successful and interesting 2.5 litre F1.

The second half of the article covers the T53 technical advances in plenty of detail.

Cooper T53 ‘Lowline’ (Brian Hatton)

Innes Ireland won the Glover Trophy at Goodwood in April and the International Trophy at Silverstone in May- Jack’s T53 was second.

Moss could see the Lotus writing on the wall so Rob Walker acquired an 18 prior to Monaco- Stirling promptly won the race albeit Jack led until lap 41 when he spun on  a wet patch and clobbered the Ste Devote wall- the damaged frame was repaired in time for Zandvoort where he won- the Lowline’s first win was on the board.

At Spa the cars were jets- Jack was 2.5 seconds quicker than the nearest pursuer in practice. He won easily with Bruce second after others fell by the wayside- Nye notes Bruce’ car topped 180mph.

By Reims the T53’s were fitted with larger capacity oil pumps to prolong crown-wheel and pinion life. Jack started from pole and won again after a great long duel with Phil Hill’s potent Ferrari Dino 246.

Jack won again in Britain after Graham Hill’s BRM brakes faltered and he spun 6 laps from home, Bruce was fourth, adrift of the two Lotus 18’s of Surtees and Ireland.

This photo and the one below are to illustrate the size and shape differences between the 1959 T51- here Lance Reventlow’s works car and the 1960 T53- Bruce’ #2 car at Silverstone during the British GP weekend- up the road is one of the BRM P48’s. Brabham’s T53 won from the Surtees and Ireland Lotus 18’s. Bruce was 4th and Lance’s car was raced by (his Scarab fellow driver) Chuck Daigh- DNF overheating from Q19 after 56 laps

 

The shot from the rear is during the 1960 French GP at Reims- Olivier Gendebien T51, 2nd at left with Bruce’ T53 at right, 3rd. Jack won. Great effort by Gendebien in the BRP Cooper

Fortune again favoured the team at Oporto with another one-two whilst in non-championship events Ireland continued to win- the cars had the speed to win shorter events but not the reliability to win Grands Prix. He won the Lombank Trophy at Snetterton in September and Moss the Oulton Park Gold Cup in Walker’s Lotus later the same month.

The Italian organisers engineered a Ferrari win at Monza by running their race on the banked circuit and Moss- well and truly back after his terrible Spa crash on that deathly weekend early in the season, the victor in the US GP at Riverside in the Walker 18.

In Formula 2 Cooper did not have it all their own way in 1960 as they had the year before- of 26 races Cooper won twelve, the Lotus 18 six, Porsche 718 five and Ferrari 156 three- the latter car ‘a dry run’ for their 1961 World Championship winning cars. Of the Cooper brigade Brabham and Jack Lewis won three races, Mike McKee two and George Lawton, Roy Salvadori, Maurice Trintignant, and Klaas Twisk one apiece.

Bruce works T53 FPF 2.5 Lowline at a very soggy Wigram 1961. Bruce was fourth behind Brabham, Moss and Angus Hyslop- Cooper T53, Lotus 18 and Cooper T45, all Climax FPF powered (CAN)

 

Technical…

T43..

 

In a Motorsport Gordon Murray appreciation piece about the Cooper T51/53 he wrote that when he went to Brabham (in 1972/3) he inherited Pete Beddings and his Dad who made all of the early Cooper shells ‘…but I don’t know who styled them. Whoever it was obviously had an eye, because they were very pretty and quite effective aerodynamically. I suspect it was John saying “its a bit like this”.’

‘I still love to see a little Cooper at Goodwood: they still stir the blood just the same as a Ferrari or a Lotus. They were also well made for the period- if you look at, say, a Ferrari of the time, the frame technology is pretty basic: the rear engined Coopers were at least multi-tubular. Not pure spaceframes like Chapman moved on to later (I think he was well and truly there already Gordon!), but they were clever-simple for reliability.’

The T43 chassis was made of the usual Cooper 1 1/2 inch steel tube. The Mark 1 tall frame hoop encircled the seat back bulkhead and was unbraced whereas here (below) it was unbraced but the top chassis longerons each side of the engine bay were braced against the lower longerons by a three piece ‘Y member’.

What about those Cooper chassis’ which have always offended the purists- a true multi-tubulars spaceframe chassis should use straight tubes only, each stressed in either compression or tension.

Famously, after laying out several straight tube designs for the Mark 8, and in John’s absence having them rejected by Charles Cooper, Owen Maddocks decided to take the piss and presented an option in which every tube was bent- to his surprise it was embraced by Charles, a good intuitive Engineer.

Doug Nye recounts Owens account of the discussion about the approach when John Cooper returned.

’Curving the top frame rails down to meet the bottom ones reduced wracking through the frame. You could run curved tubes where they wouldn’t interfere with fuel tanks and suchlike. One of our very good welders always told me he preferred simple joints- with just one tube jointed into another- to multiple joints with with three or four tubes involved. We didn’t like weld overlapping weld and so tried to arrange things to avoid that. With curved tubes we could follow the body lines more closely, so we didn’t need the old strip -steel frame to support the body panels. What had started as a joke began to look quite logical, and very practical…’

The F2 Coventry Climax 1475cc gave circa 141bhp @ 7000rpm in its first evolution and drove through a Citroen-ERSA transaxle, which coped pretty well with the demands put upon it at that stage. Note the change linkages and beautiful rear suspension detail- traditional transverse leaf and wishbones Cooper design.

Coopers curvy frame shown to good effect.

In 1956/7 wire-wheels were still very much the norm in motor racing, Coopers progressive inclination was reflected on the magnesium alloys specified on their cars pretty much from the start. Objects of beauty, lower unsprung weight and strength were amongst the favourable properties.

Crystal clear John Ross shot- not quite close enough to checkout the chassis number however! I wonder who was the steering wheel provider of choice.

Note the gear lever and linkages to the left- the weak link of the higher powered T45 and T51’s covered in this article were the gearboxes, a solution was finally arrived at for all in the form of Mike Hewland’s concern in the early sixties when a racing gearbox finally ‘became a spacer between the engine and rear of the chassis.’

Smiths instruments of course- I wonder if one of those to the lower left is for gearbox oil temperature?

The engine progression in 1957 goes something like this.

F2 Coventry Climax FPF 1500cc 141 bhp was the ‘standard engine’ for F2 T43’s.

In F1 Jack Brabham raced at Monaco with a 1960cc FPF for the first time and later in the season, as outlined earlier in the article, 2.2 litre engines were approved by Leonard Lee late in the year and made available to the works and Rob Walker teams in 1958- and others later.

The T41’s side panels wrapped tightly around the chassis hoops whereas the T43’s were bulged to clear the fuel tanks either side of the driver- sufficient tankage was incorporated for a race of 200 miles duration. The bulged body panels were carried clear of the frame on light-guage outriggers.

See the bungees retaining the fuel tanks above. Brakes in standard form as here, were Lockheed 10 inch x 1 3/4 inch drums but Girling discs were an option and commonly specified. Shock absorbers were Armstong and uprights, I think, fabricated in-house.

Very slippery.

Lean, lithe, light and uber-responsive given the low polar moment of inertia.

Not for the faint of heart and not everybody familiar with a front-engined racer could successfully make the switch- mind you, by 1956 a generation of racers had cut their teeth on air-cooled, mid-engined Coopers so they were rather used to the handling properties of the little beetle-backed machines.

 

T45…

 

This group of photographs are all of an F2 T45 FPF 1.5 but the technical elements of the F2 and F1 T45’s are the same with the exception of engine capacity of course.

The Mk3/T45 F2 and F1 and 1959 Championship winning Mk4/T51 F2 and F1 cars are virtually identical so lets take a deepish dive into the T45 and the changes over the previous T43.

This chassis is fitted with an F2 1475cc FPF- T45’s were also fitted with 1960cc, 2015cc and 2207cc FPF’s in 1958.

The bore/stroke at the latter capacity was 3.5 inches- this ‘square’ configuration was only made possible by slipping a ‘sandwich plate’ between the block and the head to get the required stroke height. On Avgas this motor produced 194bhp @ 6250rpm.

The shot above provides just a glimpse of the rear transverse leaf spring aft of the chassis cross tube.

Its lateral location was now provided by a short link pivoted on the left side frame trunnion and bolted to a centre clamp (you can just see the inner end) retaining the leaves in the middle of the spring.

Front to rear weight balance of most Coopers was about 44-56%- quite similar to the best front engined cars with a rear mounted fuel tank.

The T45 chassis was  1/2 inches lower than the T43- at the front it now incorporated upper and lower wishbones and coil spring/Armstong shocks rather than the transverse leaf used by Coopers from the start.

Ain’t she sweet.

Note the Alford and Alder forged front uprights, these wonderful bits of kit, then fitted to the Standard 8 and Triumph TR3 Road cars, were installed in F1 Brabhams up to and including the 1966 World Championship winning BT19 Repco- and Formula Fords well into the late seventies and beyond. One of motor racings most ubiquitous components, surely?

The front wishbones were of the welded tubular type and included a Chorlton ball joint at their outer end. The uprights lower threaded trunnion was coated with cadminium plating setting the finished product off nicely. Roll bars were housed within the bottom frame cross-member.

The photograph below shows (apart from the very obvious) the top leaf outer end, Armstrong shock and inboard mount for the lower wishbone. The wishbones were more widely based at both the top and bottom than on the Mk2/T43. The outboard mount for the Armstrongs was stiffened- it was on a crossbrace welded between the wishbone legs. Note the fuel filter, starter motor and height of the gearbox.

On the earlier cars the height of the engine in the frame was determined by the Citroen based gearbox as its input shaft from clutch to gearbox passed high above the inner driveshafts.

In the early Mk2’s the engine was canted 18 degrees to the right and inclined downwards at the front by 5 degrees to lower the centre of gravity.

Jack Brabham’s ongoing contribution to design elements of Coopers in addition to set up and on circuit tuning is well established and recognised. Brabham maintained ongoing correspondence with Ron Tauranac back in Sydney. It was Ron’s suggestion to use ‘drop gears’- spur gears inside the gearbox bell-housing which allowed the engine/gearbox to be lowered a full 2 1/2 inches within the chassis frame.

Cooper worked with ERSA in Paris, the gearbox manufacturer and Jack Knight’s specialist shop in Balham, to effect those changes. A bonus was incorporation of a quick-change final drive ratio feature.

Jack famously visited ERSA in early 1958 and had six gearboxes cast with extra strengthening ribs. He laid out all the patterns on the bench and added Plasticene here and scraping a core there- the trick cases were just man enough to handle the power of the 2.2 engines in 1958 and 2.5’s in 1959. ZF slippery diffs were added too- a side trip for Jack whilst in Germany, back at Surbiton ‘…John covered his tracks so Charlie would not hear of the extra expense’ Nye wrote.

‘All Cooper chassis pickups…had been provided by drilled triangular welded-on brackets known as “Bradnack Lugs”, and on the Mark 3 frame those anchoring the inboard pivots of the lower wishbones were aligned above the bottom frame rails instead of below them. Both top and bottom frame longerons were more widely spaced than on the preceding Mark 2’s with less pronounced tube curvature’ Doug Nye wrote.

 

Whilst noting Cooper’s mid-engine approach itself was at the time revolutionary, the evolution of the cars from T43 to T45/51 was more evolutionary in nature addressing design/performance weaknesses or strengthening componentry based on hard won experience.

Charlie, John and Jack were all racers…and supreme pragmatists.

They were not after the great leap forward- they had that conceptually, beyond that they sought performance advantage and reliability whilst Charles, with a ready eye on the family fortunes, ensured the whole kit and caboodle could be sold at a profit and repaired and maintained cost-effectively back at Hollyfield Road or by a customer in the paddock at Gnoo Blas.

Doug Nye is at pains to point out in HAGP that the specification of these cars is not fixed or hard and fast given so many of them, as we covered earlier, were built in the factory by the teams running them or using kits of parts supplied. The ultimate detail and personal tweaks applied means that individual chassis differed from one another almost as a matter of course.

Take your pick of artists in terms of T51 cutaway drawings!

The one earlier in the article is Tony Matthews, above is James Allingtons’ and the one below is Brian Hatton’s so every angle and detail must be well and truly covered!

 

T53 ‘Lowline’..

 

(D Friedman)

As mentioned earlier the threat of the Lotus 18 meant that a ‘clean sheet’ approach was needed- a Cooper-esque clean sheet in any event! Every part of the T51 was quickly scrutinised through lenses of lightness, simplicity, strength and efficiency.

Fundamental design tenets were laying the driver down to aid aerodynamic efficiency, a coil sprung rear end (Charles Cooper fought a pitched battle on this score Nye records by insisting that a transverse leaf rear also be designed should the coils fail), greater torsional stiffness and an improvement in performance around the T51 ‘weak tracks’ which included fast places like Reims and the Avus.

(D Friedman)

The chassis was still essentially a four-tuber of 1 1/2 inch 18 gauge thick top rails and 19 gauge bottoms. Diagonals braced the frame bays ahead of the cockpit but that area was un-braced ‘other than small tube ties welded across the joint apices’.

The long rear bays were unbraced on both sides, when the engine and gearbox were fitted- the latter ‘CS5’ had five mount points frame stiffness was of course enhanced. There were two diagonals in each side with a common apex halfway along the bottom chassis rail.

The engine mounts were welded onto curved tubes to reduce the length of the mounts, both of which were welded to the middle of the main frame members, this ‘would have been heresy to an accomplished stress man like Colin Chapman’ Doug notes.

(D Friedman)

The engine was lowered another inch over the T51 by reducing centre-offset between the step-up gears in the gearbox and allowing the driveshafts to rake upwards to the hubs rather than being parallel with the ground when static.

The steering column was lengthened and moved from behind the front axle line to ahead of it- thus the pedals could go forward and the steering wheel rake made more vertical all allowing the driver to adopt a more laid-down pose aiding aero on those fast courses.

The oil tank capacity was the same but its shape was changed- it was lower and wider, still behind the radiator but pushed forward to reduce nose height.

(D Friedman)

Suspension wishbones were wider and stronger.

The ‘CS5’ transaxle was a lovely bit of kit. It was remote sumped in its gearbox section with splash-feed to the final drive and ZF diff. The unit placed its gears above the oil level so only a pressure pump was needed.

The gearbox ‘…proved essentially trouble free…Jack Knight recalled the vast amount of machining required…its cost to Cooper was around 1000 pounds a box which was virtually prohibitive. John Cooper managed to hush it up, telling his father they cost around 400 pounds each- and The Old Man was livid even then!’ Nye wrote.

No doubt Chapman would have been keen to get hold of a couple of these boxes half way through 1960, fitted thus he had a championship winning car.

Note the CS5 gearbox and pressure pump on the outside casing, oil filler neck and upper and lower rear suspension wishbone mounts (D Friedman)

The prototype Lowline was completed at around 9 am on Friday 6 May 1960 and taken to Silverstone, where after a few shakedown laps, Brabham drove faster and faster- within 10 laps he was 2 seconds under the lap record. Then Bruce jumped in and went quicker still.

Cooper were well and truly back in the game!

 

Bruno Betti’s take on the Cooper T53 ‘Lowline’

So where does this series of cars fit in the pantheon of racing cars and motor racing history?

Gordon Murray was rather eloquent about that aspect.

‘When I think back to GP milestones , its pretty obvious really, the first rear-engined F1 Cooper. Not so much from a technical point of view even though it was so simple and so effective compared to the other more complex cars of the time but because it brought with it probably the most significant change in Grand Prix cars…’

‘Who else can lay claim to such an impact. And i’m including pre-war cars like Auto Unions because they were such bad examples of rear-engined cars…The real pioneers were Charles and John Cooper, first with the 500 F3 cars and then having the bottle as a small concern to go ahead and do a GP car.’

‘Really the Cooper was more significant, more forward looking even than the Lotus 25 because it meant a fundamental change in packaging, weight distribution, frontal area, in philosophy. And it was an ultra simple car as well, easy to run easy to work on. I always tried to build my GP cars at both Brabham and McLaren to be as simple and easy to work on as possible, and therefore get reliability, and the Cooper was such a good car from that angle. And that Climax was a very under-rated engine because it was built by a very small company. So, the whole package was pretty radical. John probably hasn’t had the credit he should have overall.’

‘All kinds of things appeal to me about it: firstly it was a great little family business, two bright guys and then the giant killing aspect…I just love that aspect. And these guys did two titles back to back…’

Finally, Gordon concluded ‘As a designer i’d have loved to have been the first to say “hang on that’s a  bit cranky having the engine in the front”, with that weight distribution, that frontal area, the prop-shaft losses, compared to the extra traction, better braking- everything gets better with the engine behind. You can’t help saying “Why didn’t somebody think of this before”…

1961 February Teretonga International, NZ. L>R Tony Shelly, Cooper T45 Climax, Pat Hoare, Ferrari 256 (in essence a Dino 246 with 3 litre Testa Rossa V12) Denny Hulme Cooper T51 2.5 FPF leased off Yeoman Credit and Jo Bonnier Yeoman Credit Cooper T51 Climax- to the right is Malcolm Gill in the silver Lycoming, a very successful, iconic Kiwi aero-engine special. No less than Jim Clark was impressed with a drive of this car! Bonnier won from Roy Salvadori, Lotus 18 off the back of the grid, Hulme and Hoare (CAN)

Etcetera: Cooper Mark and Type Numbers…

Allen Brown advises that the ‘T type’ descriptor started at Cooper in 1963. It was applied both prospectively and retrospectively. Stephen Dalton ‘tangibilises’ this in that after extensive research, he can see Cooper using a ‘T number’ for the first time in an October 1962 issue of Autosport where Cooper are quoted about ‘the new Cooper Monaco, the Type 61’

Doug Nye wrote more broadly about the timing of the detailed way in which racing cars commenced to be identified (that is, for example, when a Cooper or Cooper Climax became a Cooper T51 Climax) ‘When it comes to a type numbering system- as in so many things Cooper- don’t rely on published references to same…I have seen all types of T scrawls on some drawing copies.’

‘When I publicised manufacturer type classifications in a “Motor Racing” magazine article reviewing the 1 litre F2 seasons 1964-5 that was the first detailed references that many people had seen to some model classifications which are now used as common terms. I was not the first- but I think at least amongst the first- to present such nerdy detail.’

‘Race reporters had seldom used even Brabham BT classification before then…Brian Jordan had previously produced a little booklet essentially for model makers which included type number detail. I also seem to recall Paul Watson freelance writer/entry fixer of the 1960’s having on a few prior occasions cited a type number’ Doug concluded.

Renwick 50, in the very north of New Zealand North Island, November 1961. Flagman at the bottom of his downward arc on the podium at right! Preliminary heat on the one off rectangular circuit which used the main street. Bob Eade, on pole Maserati 250F, Tony Shelly, Cooper T45 FPF 2 litre. Pat Hoare (won the main race in his Ferrari 256 V12) on row 2 then the Bob Eade 250F and the rest including Chris Amon- in front of the sportscar on the right perhaps? (CAN)

Credits…

Special thanks to the fantastic John Ross Motor Racing Archive and Dave Friedman Archive, Theo Page, Brian Hatton, University of Newcastle, The Nostalgia Forum, ‘CAN’-Classic Auto News- Allan Dick, Milan Fistonic, Geoff Smedley, David Van Dal, oldracephotos.com.au, Getty Images- Bernard Cahier and GP Library, John Ellacott, Ron Lambert, Tony Matthews, James Allington, Bruno Betti, Ken Devine Collection

Bibliography…

‘History of The Grand Prix Car’ Doug Nye, grandprix.com, oldracingcars.com, F2Index-Fastlane, Motorsport ‘Cooper T51/53’ interview with Gordon Murray in June 2000

Tailpiece…

Jack at his happiest and most creative.

‘Jack Brabham…was always working with the cars, looking at them, thinking about them…’Owen Maddock fondly observed of Jack to Doug Nye.

Its a posed shot above no doubt but it illustrates the point all the same…

Finito…

 

(Natlib)

Jack Brabham sorts some Coventry Climax, or more particularly, Lucas electrical problems on the Ardmore pit counter during the 1960 New Zealand Grand Prix, January 9 weekend…

That Brabham’s mechanical abilities were right up there with his talent at the wheel has never been in doubt!

Note ‘the breakfast of champions’ bottle of Coke at the ready. The wooden box of Macleay Duff whisky is more troubling but I think its safe to assume Jack was not mixing the two liquids to assist his quest for greater speed. Not that early in the day anyway.

Brabham at Ardmore 1960, Cooper T51 Climax (Natlib)

Bruce led the race in a Cooper T45 FPF 2.5 ‘brought up to 1959 specs’ wrote Bruce Sergent, whilst Jack’s car was a new 2.5 litre T51.  McLaren’s 3 laps up front ended when he was passed by Moss’ Rob Walker T51, also fitted with a 2.5 FPF.

Brabham and Moss then staged a spirited dice with the lead changing a number of times before ‘Brabham’s determination and slight edge in performance’ put Jack in front on lap 18.

Moss was stopped by a broken clutch-shaft on lap 27- Brabham and McLaren then put on a show for the crowd before a ‘form-finish’- Brabham won from McLaren and then Aussies Bib Stillwell and Stan Jones in 2.2 litre engined T51’s. John Mansel and Arnold Glass followed in Maserati 250F’s in fourth and fifth and best of the front-engined, now, old guard…

(Natlib)

David Piper’s Lotus 16 Climax (DNF driveshaft) from Moss’ Rob Walker Cooper T51 Climax 2.5, #88 Ron Roycroft’s ex-Gonzalez Ferrari 375 (twelfth), Malcolm Gill, Lycoming Special (DNF) then Stan Jones, Cooper T51 Climax 2.2 and Ted Gray, Tornado 2 Chev DNF.

Brabham raced on in Australia after his NZ Tour, click here for that; https://primotipo.com/2015/01/20/jack-brabham-cooper-t51-climax-pub-corner-longford-tasmania-australia-1960/

Credits…

‘Natlib’- National Library of New Zealand, Bruce Sergent on sergent.com

Tailpiece…

(Natlib)

A couple of beaming youths- Brabham and a somewhat bloodied McLaren with the goodies. I doubt Jack thumped him so circuit grit is probably the culprit.

Finito…

(N Tait)

‘Victory Swig’: Jack Brabham partakes of the winner’s champagne, Aintree, 18 July 1959…

Brabham won the British Grand Prix from the British Racing Partnership BRM P25 driven by Stirling Moss and Bruce McLaren’s Cooper T51- Jack similarly works mounted to Bruce.

This story of the race was inspired by a couple of marvellous pieces from Nigel Tait’s Repco Collection. I wrote a largely photographic article about this weekend a while back too; https://primotipo.com/2014/11/01/masten-gregory-readies-for-the-off-british-grand-prix-aintree-1959/

(N Tait)

The reality of the win was a bit more complex than the Telex back to Repco HQ of course.

Brabham was aided by the very latest version of the Coventry Climax Mk2 FPF 2.5 ‘straight port, big valve’ engine as Doug Nye described it, and the very latest version of the modified Citroen-ERSA gearbox which used roller rather than plain bearings and oil pumps to aid the reliability of the transmission which was being stretched beyond its modest, production car design limits by the increasingly virile FPF. The short supply of 2.5 litre Climaxes was such that Denis Jenkinson noted ‘…Lotus have to share theirs between F1 and sportscars and a broken valve or connecting rod means a long delay’ in getting an engine returned from rebuild.

This you beaut gearbox was not made available to Stirling Moss or Maurice Trintignant, driving Rob Walker’s T51’s so Moss elected to race a BRM P25- he had lost leading positions in the Monaco and Dutch GP’s due to dramas with the new Colotti gearboxes the team had been using in their Coopers. The BRM was prepared by the British Racing Partnership given Moss was not confident in the Bourne marque’s standard of race preparation after brake failure of his works Type 25 at Silverstone in May.

(Getty)

Moss in the BRP BRM P25- he raced the cars in both Britain and France (Q4 and lap record but disqualified after a push start) with Brooks #20 trying to make the most of a Vanwall VW59 that lacked the advantages of monthly competitive pressures and consequent development in 1959. The champion marque or ‘International Cup’ winner in 1958 of course.

Ferrari stayed in Italy due to industrial unrest, the metal workers were on strike. On top of that Jean Behra bopped Team Manager Romolo Tavoni in an outburst of emotion after Tavoni glanced at his tachometer tell-tale after the conclusion of the French GP and challenged his driver. His Ferrari career was over, and all too soon, two weeks after the British GP, he died in a sportscar race which preceded the German GP at Avus.

Without a ride in his home GP, Ferrari driver Tony Brooks (works Ferraris were raced by Brooks, Behra, Phil Hill, Cliff Allison, Olivier Gendebien, Dan Gurney and Wolfgang von Trips in 1959- no pressure to keep your seat!) raced an updated Vanwall instead. He was without success, back in Q17 despite two cars at his disposal and DNF after a persistent misfire upon completing thirteen laps.

The Vanwalls were the same as in 1958 ‘except that the engine had been lowered in the frame, as had the propshaft line and the driving seat, while the bodywork had been made narrower and some weight reduction had been effected’ noted Denis Jenkinson in his MotorSport race report. Such was the pace of progress the Vanwalls had been left behind after their withdrawal from GP grids on a regular basis. Nye wrote that the performance of the car was so poor Tony Vandervell gave Brooks all of the teams start and appearance money in a grand gesture to a driver who had done so much for the marque.

(unattributed)

Aintree vista above as the field roars away from the grid, at the very back is Fritz d’Orey’s Maserati 250F- whilst at ground level below Jack gets the jump from the start he was never to relinquish. Salvadori is alongside in the DBR4 Aston and Schell’s BRM P25 on the inside. Behind Harry is Masten Gregory’s T51- and then from left to right on row three, McLaren T51, Moss P25, and Maurice Trintignant’s Walker T51.

(J Ross)

So the race was a battle of British Racing Greens- BRM, Cooper, Lotus, Vanwall and Aston Martin- in terms of the latter Roy Salvadori popped the front-engined DBR4 in Q2, he did a 1 min 58 seconds dead, the same as Brabham but did so after Jack. He faded in the race in large part due to an early pitstop to check that his fuel tank filler cap was properly closed- an affliction Carroll Shelby also suffered. The writing was on the wall, if not the days of the front-engined GP car all but over of course- there were three front-engined GP wins in 1959, two to the Ferrari Dino 246, in the French and German GP’s to Tony Brooks. At Zandvoort Jo Bonnier broke through to score BRM’s first championship GP win aboard a P25.

The stage was nicely set for a Brabham win from pole but it was not entirely a soda on that warm summers day ‘The big drama was tyre wear. I put a thick sportscar tyre on my cars left-front. Even so, around half distance i could see its tread was disappearing…so i began tossing the car tail-out in the corners to reduce the load on the marginal left-front.’

‘Moss had to make a late stop, and that clinched it for me. I was able to ease to the finish with a completely bald left-front’ Brabham said to Doug Nye. The Moss pitstop for tyres was unexpected as the Dunlop technicians had calculated one set of boots would last the race but they had not accounted for Stirling circulating at around two seconds a lap quicker than he had practiced! Moss later did a fuel ‘splash and dash’, taking on five gallons, as the BRM was not picking up all of its fuel despite the driver switching between tanks.

(MotorSport)

Whilst Jack won, the fastest lap was shared by Moss and McLaren during a late race dice and duel for second slot- Moss got there a smidge in front of Bruce ‘…as they accelerated towards the line, which was now crowded with photographers and officials, leaving space for only one car, Moss drove straight at the people on the right side of the road, making them jump out of the way, and to try and leave room for McLaren to try and take him on the left. This was indeed a very sporting manoeuvre…’ wrote Jenkinson. McLaren won his first GP at Sebring late in the season delivering on his all season promise. Harry Schell was fourth in a works BRM P25 and Maurice Trintignant fifth in a Colotti ‘boxed’ T51 Cooper despite the loss of second gear, with Roy Salvadori’s Aston, after a thrilling, long contest with Masten Gregory’s works T51, in sixth.

(BRM)

Nearest is Schell’s fourth placed BRM, then Trintigant’s T51- fifth, and up ahead McLaren’s third placed T51. BRM took the teams first championship win at Zandvoort in late May. No less than nine Cooper T51’s took the start in the hands of Brabham, McLaren, Trintignant, Gregory, Chris Bristow, Henry Taylor, Ivor Bueb, Ian Burgess and Hans Hermann

Photo and Research Credits…

Nigel Tait Collection, MotorSport 1959 British GP race report by Denis Jenkinson published in August 1959 and article by Doug Nye published in December 2009, Getty Images, John Ross Motor Racing Collection, BRM, Pinterest

Etcetera…

(unattributed)

The relative size of the McLaren Cooper T51 and Moss BRM P25 is pronounced on the grid. The pair were to provide lots of late race excitement after Stirling’s second pit stop.

(J Ross)

Wonderful butt shot of the Salvadori Aston Martin, #38 is the Jack Fairman driven Cooper T45 Climax, DNF gearbox, and Graham Hill’s Lotus 16 Climax up the road- he finished ninth.

(J Ross)

Roy Salvadori racing his DBR4 hard, he was at the top of his game at that career stage- if only he had stayed put with Cooper for 1959! He recovered well from an early pit stop but ultimately the car lacked the outright pace of the leaders however well suited to the track the big beast was. Carroll Shelby failed to finish in the other car after magneto failure six laps from home.

Two of these magnificent machines found good homes in Australia in the hands of Lex Davison and Bib Stillwell in the dying days of the Big Cars- Lex only lost the 1960 AGP at Lowood from Alec Mildren’s Cooper T51 Maserati by metres after a magnificent race long tussle.

Tailpiece: Brabham, Cooper T51 Climax, Aintree…

(MotorSport)

It’s almost as though Jack is giving us a lesson in Cooper designer/draftsman Owen Maddock’s T51 suspension geometry arcs!

Jack was famous for his ‘tail-out’ speedway style of driving, one eminently suited to the Coopers of the era. Lets not forget, according to Jack’s account of the race, he was accentuating this aspect of his driving to save the load on his increasingly threadbare left-front Dunlop.

Jenkinson in his race report observed that ‘The Coopers, both F1 and F2, were going extremely fast, and looking horribly unstable, yet the drivers seemed quite unconcerned, whereas drivers of more stabile machinery following behind were getting quite anxious at the twitchings and jumpings of the Surbiton cars.’

However untidy it may have all been, they were mighty fast, robust weapons of war.

Finito…

(K Devine)

Three men and a car- the 1962 Australian Grand Prix winning Cooper mind you…

Eoin Young, journalist and author of considerable renown, Wally Willmott, mechanic of similar standing, the incomparable Bruce McLaren and Cooper T62 Climax at Styles Garage on the corner of Sussex Street and the Albany Highway, Victoria Park, Perth during the 18 November weekend. The Austin has a 15 kilometre tow from this inner south-eastern Perth suburb to Caversham now also a Perth suburb in the Swan Valley.

All so simple isn’t it, three blokes and a car?! And they won the race- with a little bit of luck thanks to Jack Brabham’s late race collision with Arnold Glass, but that in no way diminishes the achievement.

I wrote about this race and somewhat tragic car a while back; https://primotipo.com/2016/05/20/bruce-lex-and-rockys-cooper-t62-climax/

Here are a few more brilliant photographs from Ken Devine’s Collection of that weekend- I was going to retro-fit them into the old article but it seems better to let the photos ‘shine on their own’ so here they are with a few supporting notes.

(K Devine)

David McKay and Jack Brabham chewing the fat- don’t they look like youngsters?!

McKay didn’t race that weekend but was scooping up information for his newspaper and magazine reports of the race. Morover he was spinning Jack a line about how long-in-the-tooth his Cooper was and how much he would like to buy Jack’s brand-spankers BT4 Climax- a feat he would accomplish! The BT4 was in essence an FPF engined BT3- Tauranac’s first, 1962 F1 car.

Jack raced the car in New Zealand (a win at Levin) with David racing it in the Australian events- Graham Hill took the wheel in the 1964 Tasman Series achieving one win at Longford.

(K Devine)

Lex Davison looking stern as he motors past at some clip in his T53 Cooper- like McKay he was after a new car too- at the end of the summer Bruce’s T62 was his, a car around which a good deal of tragedy occurred. Lex was classified 8th from grid 4 but only completed 46 of the races 60 lap, 101 mile distance.

(K Devine)

Bib Stillwell must have been flogging quite a few Holdens from his Cotham Road, Kew, Melbourne dealership by then- he really went about his motor racing in a thoroughly professional manner.

To me he was slow to peak having started racing just after the war, but man, when he did he was an awesome racer taking four Gold Stars on the trot from 1962 to 1965- he had his tail up on this weekend as he had just taken his first Gold Star in this Cooper T53 Climax with wins in two of the six GS championship rounds.

Its interesting to look at Stillwell’s results that year- he had an absolute cracker of a season inclusive of the internationals when the big-hitters were about. His record is as follows; Warwick Farm 100 3rd, Celebrities Scratch Race Lakeside 1st, Lakeside International 2nd, Victorian Trophy Calder 1st, South Pacific Championship Longford 3rd, Bathurst 100 1st, Racing Feature Race Calder 1st, Victorian Road Race Championship Sandown 2nd, Advertiser Trophy Mallala 1st, Hordern Trophy Warwick Farm 1st, AGP Caversham 3rd- it was a year of amazing speed and reliability, the teams only DNF was at the Sandown International (engine) the only other ‘non-event’ was a DNA at Lowood- by early June Bib no doubt figured the long tow to Queensland from Melbourne was a waste of money.

Click here for Bib’s time in Intercontinental Brabhams; https://primotipo.com/2018/07/20/matich-stillwell-brabhams-warwick-farm-sydney-december-1963/

At Caversham Stillwell was third on the grid behind McLaren 1:19.6 and Brabham 1:20.1, Bib’s 1:20.3 was pacey- he finished third, 47 seconds adrift of McLaren and 5 seconds behind John Youl in a Cooper T55.

(K Devine)

Lets not forget the Cooper Monaco either- a car I wrote about a while back and which received the ex-Scarab Buick-Traco V8 a little later in its life- the motor which was in the engine nacelle of Arnold Glass’ BRM P48 (#7 below) this very weekend.

The story of Bib’s Cooper Monaco is here; https://primotipo.com/2015/03/10/bib-stillwell-cooper-t49-monaco-warwick-farm-sydney-december-1961/

(D Van Dal-K Devine)

The cut and thrust between Brabham and McLaren went on for over forty laps- Jack saw an opportunity when Bruce ran wide lapping Arnold- Jack focussed on Bruce, Arnold on taking his line for the next corner, a collision the result. Jack was out on lap 50 whereas Arnold survived to finish in fifth place from grid 7.

The story of the BRM P48 is here; https://primotipo.com/2018/03/16/bourne-to-ballarat-brm-p48-part-2/

(K Devine)

Jack and Roy fettle the 2.5 litre Climax engine lent to them by Bruce McLaren, Jack having popped his 2.7 ‘Indy’ FF in practice.

The Brabham BT4 was the first in a long line of ‘Intercontinental’ chassis built by the Tauranac/Brabham combination all of which (BT4/7A/11A) won a lot of motor races in this part of the world.

Paragons of practical, chuckable virtue the cars won races in the hands of World Champions Hill, Stewart and Brabham as well as championship winners in domestic competition for the likes of Stillwell, Spencer Martin and Kevin Bartlett (whilst noting the latter’s Gold Star success was aboard a BT23D Alfa Romeo.

(K Devine)

 

(K Devine)

Plenty of hopefuls entered the meeting not least Jim Harwood in the ex-Whitehead/Cobden Ferrari 125 which by then was fitted with a small-block 283 cid Chev V8.

His times were too far behind the modern mid-enginer racers of the top-liners so he elected not to start- with 1962 still just into the period of Austraian motor racing where everybody could have a go with a high-born special such as this ex-GP 1950 Ferrari.

The car is notable for the fact that it was one of Tom Wheatcroft’s first Donington Collection acquisitions.

(K Devine)

 

(K Devine)

Brabham, Stillwell and McLaren from left to right at the drop of the starters flag. Brabham BT4, Cooper T53 and Cooper T62 respectively. On the second row its John Youl at left, Cooper T55 and Lex Davison’s red T53 alongside him. In the dark helmet on the row behind is the red with white striped BRM P48 Buick of Arnold Glass and at very far left is Jeff Dunkerton’s Lotus Super 7 Ford 1.5- to the right of the Lotus is the red front-engined #14 Cooper T20 Holden Repco of Syd Negus.

(K Devine)

Whilst ten starters is not a big grid, Dunkerton’s achievement in finishing ninth in the little Lotus 7 was an amazing one- the last placing ever gained by a sportscar in an AGP.

(K Devine)

Bill Patterson was the reigning 1961 Gold Star Champions but his old Cooper T51 was never going to be a competitive tool going into that year with plenty of more modern well-driven machines on Australian grids.

In reality Patto was easing himself slowly out of racing as a driver albeit he would remain involved as a sponsor/entrant in the next couple of decades. He started from grid 6 and finished fourth albeit three laps behind McLaren.

Bill Patterson’s story; https://primotipo.com/2017/02/02/patto-and-his-coopers/

(K Devine)

John Youl is another driver I’ve waxed lyrical about in the past- its a shame commitments running the family pastoral properties in northern Tasmania took him away from motor racing. Youl’s ex-works Cooper T55 was beautifully prepared by Geoff Smedley and pedalled very quickly by John in the 1963 Internationals. It would have been very interesting to see just how far he would have progressed up the elite level totem-pole had he stuck with his racing career.

Click here; https://primotipo.com/2017/09/08/bay-of-plenty-road-race-and-the-frank-matich-lotus-19s/

(K Devine)

Bruce on the way to a Caversham win, Cooper T62 from Youl, Stillwell, Patterson and Glass. Bruce McLaren Motor Racing had rather a bright future.

Credit…

Ken Devine Collection

Tailpiece: McLaren takes the flag…

(K Devine)

Is it Jack in the blue driving suit obscuring the man with the flag?

Bruce won two AGP’s, the other aboard his self designed and built- with Wally Willmott, Cooper T79 at Longford in 1965.

Both were great wins after a long tussles with Jack Brabham- at Caversham Arnold Glass ruined the fun when he mistakenly put Jack off the road and at Longford he won by a smidge under four seconds from the Aussie’s Brabham BT11A Climax and Phil Hill’s Cooper T70 Climax. It was a great day for the Bruce McLaren Motor Racing as Phil drove a terrific race- in the American’s opinion one of his best in the T70, another car built by Bruce. (McLaren’s winning T79 was an updated T70)

Longford joy was tempered considerably by the death of Rocky Tresise early in the race aboard the very same Cooper T62 in which Bruce won at Caversham in 1962…

Finito…

(P Geard)

John Youl attacks Mountford Corner, Longford in his Porsche 356 during the late fifties…

John and his racer brother Gavin were scions of a prominent Tasmanian grazier family and very successful, competitive drivers until business pressures forced early retirement. Symmons Plains is a permanent legacy for the racing brothers built as it was on the family property.

(P Geard)

John proved his world level pace in several seasons aboard Cooper Climax T51 and T55 prepared by Geoff Smedley, whose just published book will be definitive on both drivers careers.

In the 1961 Longford shot below he is in the best of company (at right) aboard a Cooper T51 alongside #14 Brabham’s T53 with Austin Miller’s distinctive yellow T51 Climax behind.

(J Richardson)

Roy Salvadori won the South Pacific Trophy race that weekend from Bill Patterson and John with Austin fourth. Brabham was outed with a broken half-shaft on lap 16 of the 24 lap distance.

Here John’s appearance in the Porsche is a little earlier, the last photo below perhaps in 1957 and the others a little later- you can see the evolution from road car still fitted with hubcaps! to lowered rortier racer. I wonder what modifications were made to that 356 Super?

Credits…

Paul Geard, Historic Racing Car Club of Tasmania, Ellis French, Geoff Smedley, John Richardson

Tailpiece: Youl, White, Walkem on ‘The Flying Mile’, Longford circa 1957…

(HRCCT)

Youl in what looks like a motor-cycle racing helmet beside his Porker, the yellow machine is Graham White’s Vincent Spl and the obscured Cooper is Jock Walkem’s- the man in black. Delightful bucolic scene belies the high speeds and sound of straining engines which took place annually on this stretch of road over the March Labour Day long-weekend from 1953 to 1968…

Finito…