Posts Tagged ‘Mike Hawthorn’

58 british

(Allan Fearnley)

Mike Hawthorn and Peter Collins looking confident with the speed of their Ferrari Dinos prior to the Silverstone start…

Into 1958 the relationship between Enzo Ferrari and Peter Collins had soured a bit as the chief felt the Brit was not as competitive as he had been, he was dropped to the F2 team at the French GP. Mike Hawthorn’s intervention and Luigi Musso’s death at Reims made his position more secure. Nevertheless he was feeling plenty of pressure at the time…

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Peter Collins takes his last win, Silverstone 1958, Ferrari Dino 246 (unattributed)

Collins started the British GP from 6th on the grid, with Moss’ Vanwall on pole, but Collins blasted through from the second row to lead Moss, Hawthorn, Schell’s BRM P25, Brooks Vanwall VW57 and Salvadori, Cooper T45 Climax.

Collins increased the lead steadily with Moss and Hawthorn comprising the lead group. Stirling’s engine blew on lap 26 leaving Peter leading from Hawthorn. Stuart Lewis-Evans was 3rd but was soon passed by Salvadori. Collins won from Hawthorn, Salvadori and Lewis-Evans’ Vanwall VW57, four Brits!

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Peter Collins being congratulated aboard his Dino after the event. Its July 19, he was dead 3 weeks later, Nurburgring on 3 August (Hutton)

Credit…

Allan Fearnley, Hutton Deutsch

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Cliff Allison releases his Lotus 12 Climax from the Monaco haybales in 1958, whilst teammate Graham Hill passes in the sister car…

It was a significant race for Lotus, their debut as Grand Prix competitors, Allison was classified 6th and Hill’s race ended on lap 15 with engine dramas.

Coventry Climax had still not built a 2.5 litre version of their FPF 4 cylinder engine, so Lotus, like Cooper were competing with engines of 1960cc, well below the 2.5 litre F1 capacity limit.

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Jesse Alexander’s shot captures the atmosphere of Monaco ’58, shot taken from the ‘Milk Bar’

 

Times of change in racing are of immense interest to those of us with an historic bent, 1958/9 is one of those eras with the growing influence of the ‘Green Cars’ a portent of the British dominance to come. And of course Cooper showing the mid-engined path still with us today.

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Cliff Allison at Monza in 1959 (Cahier)

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Lotus 12 in all its naked glory at Zandvoort in 1958. It was about as small as a front engined GP car could get, ignoring the fact it was designed as an F2 car! In 1958 ’twas as modern as tomorrow and as passe as yesterday simultaneously (Cahier)

Indicative of  mid-engined growing superiority was the failure of all the Maserati 250F’s entered to qualify; driven by Godia-Sales, Kavanagh, Taramazzo, Gerini, de Fillipis, Testut, Gould and the great, but aging Monegasque Louis Chiron. In 1957 Juan Manuel Fangio won the race in a factory ‘Piccolo’ 250F.

Successful British motor-cycle dealer BC Ecclestone had acquired the Connaughts but Bernie, Paul Emery and Bruce Kessler all failed to qualify the cars too.

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Bernie Ecclestone trying hard to qualify his Connaught Type B Alta, to no avail as was the case for his 2 teammates (unattributed)

Things were better for the Green Cars at the front of the grid with Brooks, Behra and Brabham in Vanwall, BRM and Cooper respectively. Salvadori and Trintignant were next up in Coopers, the quickest Ferrari, Mike Hawthorn, 6th in his Dino.

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# 18 Savadori Cooper T45 Climax, # 6 Behra BRM P25, #16 Brabham Cooper T45 Climax, # 30 Brooks Vanwall VW57, winner Trintignant partially obscured behind Brabham Cooper T45 Climax, # 32 Lewis-Evans Vanwall VW57…and the rest, turn 1, lap1 (unattributed)

In a race of changing fortunes Behra, Hawthorn and Moss all led but suffered mechanical failures. Trintignant won the race in Rob Walker’s Cooper T45 Climax from Musso and Collins in Dinos. Moss’ Argentina Cooper T43 win was no ‘flash in the pan’…

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Moss, Hawthorn, Brabham and Trintignant. Ferrari Dino 246, Vanwall VW57 with Monaco ‘snub nose’ and Coopers T45 Climax x 2 (unattributed)

Etcetera…

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Photo Credits…

Jesse Alexander, The Cahier Archive, John Ross Motor Racing Archive

Tailpiece: Allison made the Lotus 12 sing…

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As here at Monza 1958. He put the car 5th on the British GP grid, well in front of Hill in the new Lotus 16, finished 6th at Zandvoort, 4 th in the Belgian GP at Spa and 7th at Monza, such were his performances he was off to Ferrari in 1959 at Enzo’s invitation (John Ross)

 

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Harry Schell on the limit of adhesion in his ‘Yeoman Credit’ Cooper T51 Climax at Madgwick Corner, Goodwood…

Harry Schell was a press-on kinda driver wasn’t he? Here the Franco-American is delighting the ‘Glover Trophy’ spectators with some delicious Cooper T51 drifts…

The 1960 event was held on Easter Monday, 18 April. Harry was bang on the pace too, equal 2nd quickest in practice with Stirling Moss in a similar car. Chris Bristow demonstrated his undeniable pace though, he was on pole by a couple of tenths and finished 3rd in the race behind Moss, the winner Innes Ireland in his factory Lotus 18 Climax, the quickest of 1960’s GP grid. Harry’s engine popped on lap 20 of the 62 lap 162 Km race…

Credit…

GP Library, National Motor Museum

Tailpiece: Harry telling a naughty joke by the look of it, Crystal Place, July 1955…

Stirling Moss, Schell and Mike Hawthorn during the ‘London Trophy’ meeting which Mike won the feature race in a Maserati 250F from Harry’s Vanwall.

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(National Motor Museum)

Mike won his heat in the Moss’ family 250F chassis #2508, Harry his in Vanwall ‘VW2’ and Mike the final. Moss was contracted to Mercedes Benz that year, this non-championship 30 July event not one in which Benz entered their W196’s.

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Norman Dewis, famous as Jaguar’s test and development driver was often entered as a relief driver but until 1955 had not raced a Jag…

Here he is in the factory ‘D Type’ during the 1955, horrific Le Mans event. He co-drove Don Beauman’s car the pair failed to finish when Beauman ‘beached the car atop the sand dunes’ at Arnage. Mike Hawthorn and Ivor Bueb scored a hollow win in ‘XKD 505’.

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Umberto Maglioli’s head in his Ferrari 118 LM ahead of the Beauman, Hawthorn and Jacques Swaters D Types during the early laps of the 1955 Le Mans 24 Hours (Klemantaski)

Before he joined Jaguar, as the 500cc F3 movement grew, and with a fellow LeaF employee Dewis designed and built a neat Rudge-powered F3 car, the DNC. In its first race at Silverstone in July 1950, he qualified on pole and led for two laps before engine failure. It was rebuilt to do more races in 1951, in October that year Dewis joined Jaguar.

As noted Dewis had been a Jag reserve driver before, but the 1955 Le Mans was his only race/works drive for his Browns Lane employers. He had done most of the D development work, the result, the long-nose 1955 car.

Jaguar’s works 1955 Le Mans entries were for Hawthorn/Jimmy Stewart, Tony Rolt/Duncan Hamilton and Don Beauman/Desmond Titterington. Beauman, an old friend of Hawthorn’s was hired after a test under Lofty England’s watchful eye.

Two weeks before Le Mans Titterington and Stewart crashed their Ecosse D’s during the Eifelrennen at the Nurburgring. Stewart decided to retire and Des was hospitalised. So, days before the race Ivor Bueb was slotted into Hawthorn’s car and Dewis into Beauman’s. Their car ‘XKD508’ ran as high as 4th before the Mercedes team withdrew their 300 SLR’s but on lap 106 Beauman ‘parked it’ at Arnage and retired it unable to free it from the sand.

Click here to read an interesting interview with Norman Dewis in MotorSport about his life;

http://www.motorsportmagazine.com/archive/article/april-2013/86/lunch-norman-dewis

Credit…

Getty Images, Klemantaski Collection, Nicholas Watts

Tailpiece: Hawthorn’s D  from #12 Dreyfus/Lucas Ferrari 750 Monza and Fangio’s Benz 300SLR during the first torrid stint by both Mike and J-MF…

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(Nicholas Watts)

 

 

 

 

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Baptism at Aintree – Karl Kling’s Mercedes W196 & Roberto Mieres’ Maserati 250F push Jack at his 1st World Championship F1 event. Cooper T40 Bristol. 1955 British GP. (Jack Brabham Story)

Sixty years ago today, Jack Brabham made his Formula 1 GP debut at Aintree, but first he had to build the car…

The first half of 1955 was full of many goings on for Jack Brabham. With encouragement from the UK RAC motor sporting administrator, Dean Delamont, Jack was convinced to head over to the UK for some motor racing. Little did anyone know the success this would bring – although it was hardly immediate.

It the pages of the February 1955 ‘Australian Motor Sports’ there’s a brief piece on Jack and his trip to the Continent and it rumours that he had ordered a Cooper-Alta and might have a trial drive with Mercedes Benz. To finance such a trip he had to sell his highly developed & successful ‘RedeX Special’ – aka Cooper-Bristol. Stan Jones, having wrecked his Maybach II at the 1954 Australian GP purchased it. Just prior to selling though, Jack had his last race in the ‘RedeX’ at the January 31, 1955 Gnoo Blas meeting. This was a big meeting for the country NSW circuit with international drivers’ Peter Whitehead and Prince Bira running Ferrari & Maserati respectively. For Jack another part of financing the UK journey also meant selling his lathe and some other equipment – all to his later lament.

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The unloved ex-Whitehead Cooper-Alta at Ibsley. (Jack Brabham Story)

Flying to the UK, meant initially leaving his wife, Betty and young son, Geoffrey in Australia. Soon after arriving Jack took delivery of the ex Peter Whitehead Cooper-Alta. In fact he originally set up camp at Whitehead’s Chalfont St Peter’s race garage before a slightly later move to Bob Chase’s RJC Motors operation at Saltdean. His racing activities in the UK, began with the Cooper-Alta at the April 11, 1955 Goodwood Easter Monday meeting. The same meeting Cooper Cars debuted their petite 1100cc Coventry-Climax T39 ‘bobtail’ sports car. Their first foray into what would become a successful ‘Climax’ engine relationship.

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Brabham’s brand new, self built Cooper T40 Bristol, Aintree, British GP 1955. Car and driver victorious in the 1955 Australian GP, Port Wakefield later in the year. (unattributed)

History tells us that Jack Brabham never said much, he let his ability do the talking, whether by his driving or engineering skills. But he knew how to get what he wanted. Neither Charles, nor John Cooper ever officially interviewed Jack for a job at Cooper’s Surbiton works. He just hung around often enough until he was one of them.

Despite its Cooper heritage, Jack’s lack of enthusiasm remained for the Cooper-Alta. Even after an engine blow-up at the April 30 Ibsley meeting on the old RAF base, saw him convert it to Bristol power. Meaning he was never going to be satisfied continuing to race that car.

So having gained his new friendship with the likeable John Cooper, Jack was allowed use of Cooper’s Surbiton facilities to knock together what would be his own interpretation of Cooper’s new T39 ‘bobtail’ – shoehorning a big engine into a small sports car. One could even say this was an early incarnation of what would evolve into the Can Am style cars of the mid 60s and onwards.

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The bare bones of the Cooper T40 Bristol under construction. Tubular ‘curvy in the usual Cooper way’ chassis frame. Front and rear suspension upper transverse leaf spring and lower wishbones with Arnstrong shocks, drum brakes, 2 litre Bristol 6 cylinder engine.(Jack Brabham Story)

Part of Jack building his ‘streamliner’ F1 car, involved adding 50mm to the chassis’ wheelbase to accommodate the familiar to him, 2 litre Bristol 6 cylinder lump – in place of the 1100 Climax 4. Both built with the engine behind the driver. Worth noting is that in some official entry lists the car is claimed to have a 2.2 litre Bristol. Apparently that was the intent, but not reality. It was also built devoid of lights and anything that would add unwarranted weight.

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The Bristol 2 litre 6 cylinder in the rear of the T40. (Jack Brabham Story)

This project later tagged as T40 in the Cooper genealogy stakes – with 2 constructed. One Jack would use himself, this car was allocated chassis number CB/1/55 and another that Bob Chase’s RJC Motors would briefly run for Mike Keen. I say briefly, because unfortunately a crash at the August 20, 1955 Goodwood 9 hour took Mike’s life and the ever present problem of fire destroyed the car.

Jack Brabham’s UK presence hadn’t gone unnoticed by the UK specialist motoring press, gaining a few comments in race reports. Autosport magazine even showed off the incomplete T40 in their pages the day before its first race. Admittedly the photo would have been taken sometime before that, but it was a brand new car when it hit the circuit – with no test time.

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Autosport 15 July 1955 Cooper/Brabham announcement.

Liverpool’s Aintree circuit was the venue for the running of the July 16, 1955 British GP meeting. This meeting became Jack’s F1 debut race. The programme even mentions ‘The Cooper Grand Prix entry is a prototype of a full team to be built to race in 1956.’ A slightly premature comment as it turned out and the only F1 Grand Prix the T40 would take part. The car’s haste to complete meant new car sorting was lacking and a rear of grid start. Having liberated the Harley Davidson clutch setup from his Australian ‘RedeX’ C-B before sale, with some irony it was this part that let Jack down at Aintree making for an early retirement at 30 of the intended 90 laps the outcome. The dominant Mercedes Benz W196 team that included Juan Manuel Fangio, Karl Kling and Stirling Moss, saw Stirling taking race honours.

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Jack Brabham’s Cooper T40 Bristol from Ken Wharton Vanwall VW55 equal 9th, with victor Stirling Moss about to round them up in his Mercedes W196. (Bill Henderson)

Despite the niggling start Jack had more faith in the T40 than the Cooper-Alta. What followed over the ensuing month were national events at July 30 Crystal Palace & August 1 Brands Hatch with further retirements at both. Then crossing over the Scottish border his luck with the T40 began to change at the August 6 Charterhall meeting. Finally two 4th placed finishes in his Heat and Final. Continuing into the following week’s damp August 13 Snetterton. At that meeting Jack was able to mix it amongst some of the motor racing luminaries. Such as Harry Schell & Ken Wharton in Vanwall’s, Stirling Moss in his privately entered Maserati 250F and Roy Salvadori 250F. That being the finishing order for Snetterton’s RedeX Trophy race with Jack slotting in between Stirling and Roy for another 4th place. Had he not spun during his tussle with Moss it may well have been a 3rd place greeting him. This race alone was enough to convince Jack he would return to the UK in 1956 as he was about to send the Cooper T40 home to Australia. Jack and Betty then set to return to Sydney in late September to catch up with their son and more motor racing.

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Jacks thoroughly modern mid engined, ‘central seat sports derived F1 car’ ahead of the over the hill Ferrari 625 of Mike Hawthorn, monstering the little Cooper. MH finished equal 6th in the race with Fazz teammate Eugenio Castellotti. Things got better for Ferrari, the Lancia D50 ‘gifts’ were not too far away! (unattributed)

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The year of 1955 was also a period whereby other Aussies had made the trip to England for a racing holiday. Orders had been placed with Aston Martin for 3 of their DB3S racing sports cars. The ‘Kangaroo Stable’ as it was so named with members being Tony Gaze, David McKay, Les Cosh, Dick Cobden, Tom Sulman & Jack Brabham. Circumstances played against them though. Late delivery of the cars didn’t help, but it was the June 11-12, 1955 running of Le Mans that put the skids on racing soon afterwards with a number of events cancelled as a result to the Pierre Levegh Mercedes going into the crowd at Le Mans.

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‘Kangaroo Stable’ Aston Martin DB3S at the Hyeres 12 Hour, France 29 May 1955. L>R Gaze, McKay, Brabham, Cosh and Cobden standing near the post. Only Tom Sulman is missing from the shot. Race won by Canonica/Munaron Ferrari 750 Monza, then came the Kangaroo Stable trio; Gaze/McKay 2nd, Cosh/Cobden 3rd and Sulman/Brabham 4th. (David McKay ‘Behind The Wheel’)

Jack Brabham was present at the famous French road course that year, but as a reserve driver for the Bristol team. He got to qualify, but never received the call up to put his helmet on for the race. That may well have been one of several omens Jack was granted in 1955 and over his outstanding career.

Cooper Cars Ltd also had a presence at Le Mans with the John Brown/Edgar Wadsworth Cooper T39 1100 and the Whitehead Brothers Cooper-Jaguar that year, but it was the infancy of Jack and John’s friendship, hence no involvement with the Surbiton marque’s effort

Another instance of Brabham luck was just before he headed for home. September 17 was the Dundrod RAC Tourist Trophy meeting in Ireland, with Jack there to share the Michael O’Shea owned Cooper T39 with London driver, Jim Mayers. An inexperienced French driver, Vicomte Henri de Barry created annoyance for several drivers as he baulked their progress, with those drivers’ having to take risks to get past to further their race on the testing Irish road course. Unfortunately the situation ended as badly as it could with a fiery crash at Deer’s Leap involving several cars. Jim was one of 2 drivers to die at that crash scene – the Cooper scattered to oblivion. This event would also claim another driver, elsewhere around the course. Although not knowing otherwise, Dean Delamont had sought out Betty Brabham, thinking it was Jack involved in the main crash – only to find him in the pit. Jim and Jack had flipped a coin to decide who did the first stint. We know who won…

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Together in the UK, Betty Brabham followed Jack mid-year. While their son, Geoffrey stayed with his grandparents in Sydney. Cooper T40 Bristol. (Jack Brabham Story)

So as can be seen there were a few familiar names that helped establish Jack Brabham in those early days in the UK – Whitehead, Chase, Cooper & Delamont. The Bristol marque also played its part with their engine and the Le Mans reserve driver gig. Through them, Jack Brabham, Jim Mayers & Mike Keen are also entwined with their 1955 Le Mans Bristol team involvement. Taking out 7th (Mayers), 8th (Keen) & 9th places behind Jaguar’s Mike Hawthorn, Ivor Bueb winning entry. It was all a taste of the next 15 years Jack would encounter in the highest levels of motor racing, including building more racing cars.

Etcetera…

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Jack shipped the Cooper Bristol home to Australia at the end of 1955, and in the saltbush country of the new Port Wakefield circuit, 100Km from Adelaide, won the 1955 Australian Grand Prix on 10 October. A lucky win from Reg Hunt’s ailing Maserati A6GCM and Doug Whiteford’s Talbot-Lago T26C. The first mid-engined AGP win. (unattributed)

Bibliography and Photo Credits…

‘The Jack Brabham Story’ Jack Brabham and Doug Nye, ‘Behind The Wheel’ David McKay, Bill Henderson

Finito…

 

Reims 1958

Jesse Alexanders’ great shot from the rear of the Reims grid, French Grand Prix July 1958…

Down ze back its the #24 Lotus 16 of Graham Hill to the left,  #30 Maser 250F of American Troy Ruttman to the right and at the rear the Lotus 12 Climax driven by Cliff Allison. The race was won by Mike Hawthorn in a Ferrari Dino 246 from Moss in a Vanwall and Von Trips in another Dino.

Very sadly this was the race in which Luigi Musso lost his life, chasing teammate and championship rival Hawthorn through the flat out Muizon corner he lost control at 150mph, crashed and died later from injuries sustained in the accident.

cliff allison french gp 1958 lotus 12

Allisons’ Lotus 12 amongst the Champagne-Ardenne fields, i wonder what that crop is!? The 12 was built as an F2 contender originally  but quickly evolved into a GP car, Lotus’ first, as the capacity of the Coventry Climax FPF engine progressively edged its way towards 2.5 litres. (Unattributed)

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Gerino Gerini Maser 250F 9th, Jean Behra BRM P25 DNF, Stirling Moss Vanwall, 2nd and Francisco Godia-Sales Maser 250F DNF French GP 1958. (unattributed)

Behra and Collins French GP 1958

Peter Collins Ferrari Dino 246 5th and Jean Behra BRM P25 DNF start of French GP 1958. (unattributed)

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Ferraris’ Dino 246 X 3 French GP 1958; #4 Hawthorn, ill fated #2 Musso and #6 Von Trips. (unattributed)

Fangio French GP 1958 Maser 250F

Juan Fangio finished 4th is his last grand prix in the ‘Piccolo’ lightweight Maserati 250F, car now past its prime. (unattributed)

Photo Credit…

Jesse Alexander Archive

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Peter Collins photographed by Louis Klemantaski aboard their Ferrari 335S during the ill-fated 1957 Mille Miglia…

This stunning, evocative shot, one of motor racings’ most famous, was taken by acclaimed photographer Louis Klementaski who ‘navigated’ for Collins capturing the essence of the event and times which seem so long ago.

Klemantaski picks up the story in ‘Automobile Year 44’…’In the fateful Mille Miglia of 1957 I was in the Ferrari Team in the car driven by Peter Collins, a 335 Sport. This model was the ultimate achievement of Ferraris’ creativity of that period. Peter said it was the best handling sports-racing Ferrari he had driven so far. It was certainly the most powerful and I had to adjust my course notes accordingly’.

‘ This photograph was taken as we went through a series of hairpin bends in the Abruzzi Mountains on the way to l’Aquila and Rome. There were no trees around and Peter could see the whole road for quite a way ahead, so I was able to take some time off from giving him signals as to the severity of the next corner and take some shots of the cockpit and him in action. As the G-forces were considerable, I had to make the exposure on the right-hand corner, so that I would be thrown outwards and away from him. We had no seat belts in those days and it was very difficult not to impede Peter on occasion. In those very tight corners first on one lock and then the other, Peter could cope without changing the position of his hands on the wheel, which was just as well, as the corners came up with remarkable rapidity. This is my favourite Ferrari photograph because it was of a Ferrari in action, taken from a Ferrari cockpit- and how much closer to the spirit of these wonderful cars can you get?’

Scuderia Ferrari entered five cars in the 1957 event... 315S models for Piero Taruffi (his car fitted with a 335 engine) and Count Wolfgang ‘Taffy’ von Trips, and the latest 4 litre quad-cam 335S models for Collins/ Klemantaski and Marquis ‘Fon’ de Portago and Ed Nelson. Finally, a 250LWB was entered for Olivier Gendebien and his navigator M Washer.

Taruffi won the race and then retired with Von Trips in second. The Collins car retired at the 5 hour 3 minute mark with a broken driveshaft. Sadly, and infamously de Portago/ Nelson perished in a gruesome accident also which took the lives of nine spectators, five of whom were children in the village of Guidizzolo, Lombardy, 110 Km east of Milan.

Some reports say de Portago should have changed his tyres earlier, a blowout the cause of the accident. The race was banned as a consequence, and so ended a tradition which commenced in 1927, the event run 24 times from then until 1957.

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The view at speed…somewhere in Italy! Klemantaski shot from the Collins 335S (Louis Klemantaski)

The Mile Miglia was started by Count Aymo Maggi and Franco Mazzotti… after the Italian Grand Prix was moved from their home town of Brescia to Monza. They chose a race from Brescia to Rome and back, a figure-eight course of 1500Km or 1000 Roman Miles.

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1957 Mille Miglia course, the race won by Piero Taruffi, Ferrari 315S, from Taffy Von Trips in a similar car and the Scuderia Ferrari 250GT LWB of Gendebien/ Washer

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Fon de Portago/Ed Nelson in their Ferrari 335S go thru the Futa Pass on their fateful ’57 Mille run. (Yves Debraine)

Various courses were used over the years with many of the greats of the day winning. Tazio Nuvolari Alfa 6C 1750 in 1930 and 8C 2300 in 1933, Rudy Caracciola in a Benz SSK 1931, Achille Varzi Alfa Monza 1934 and Alberto Ascari in a Lancia B24 in 1954 included.

Over the years Italians won the race the most, from 1953 to 1957 the event was a round of the World Sports Car Championship, Stirling Moss famously winning navigated by ‘Motor Sport’ magazines’ Denis Jenkinson, the pair setting the fastest ever time of 10 hours 7 minutes and 48 seconds.

The team covered six reconnaisance laps, Jenkinson making ‘pace notes’ on a scroll of paper contained in an aluminium housing. Dennis ‘calling’ the corners and the stunning ability of Moss resulted in an emphatic and famous 1955 victory in their Mercedes Benz 300SLR.

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The 1957 Ferrari 335S…was a development of the 860 Monza and 290 MM sports racers of 1956.

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The Collins/ P Hill Ferrari 335S at Le Mans 1957, DNF engine failure on lap 2 (Unattributed)

A tubular steel chassis frame was fitted with independent unequal length wishbones, coil springs and hydraulic shocks at the front. A de Dion rear axle located by twin radius arms, transverse leaf spring and hydraulic shocks was fitted at the rear.

Drum brakes were used all round, steering was by worm and sector. A strong 4 speed transaxle took all the torque of the big V12 with 6X16 inch and 7X 16 inch tyres fitted front/rear, the whole lot weighing a relatively light 880Kg dry.

The 335 Sport was the height of development of Ferraris’ complex but powerful 4 cam front-engined sports cars which won the World Sports Car Championship in 1957, defeating arch rivals Maserati in the process.

Ferrari 335S cutaway

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Side profile of the Hawthorn Ferrari 335S on the exit of Tertre Rouge corner Le Mans 1957. He shared the car with Luigi Musso, and again DNF due to engine failure (Louis Klemantaski)

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4 litre V12 engine of the Collins 335S during a Mille Miglia pitstop (Louis Klemantaski)

The engines of the 290, 315 and 335S were primarily designed by Vittorio Bellantani…the ex-Maserati engineer received assistance from Vittorio Jano, some elements of the engine having a passing design relationship to Janos’ fabulous D50 Lancia V8 of 1954/55. Jano of course came across to Ferrari from Lancia in the deal which ‘saved Ferrari’s bacon’, devoid of a competitive Grand Prix car at the time.

The 60 degree all aluminium V12 displaced 4023cc with a bore/stroke of 77X72mm. DOHC were deployed with 2 valves per cylinder. Six Weber 44DCN carbs fed the engine with twin plugs and four coils providing the spark. Maximum power was 390bhp @ 7400rpm.

The Klemantaski Archive quotes Phil Hill as saying ‘the 335S was the best front-engined car ever built by Ferrari and certainly the fastest’.

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Cockpit of restored 335S ‘0764’ . 4 speed rear mounted transaxle, worm and sector steering. (Unattributed)

 


 

Etcetera…

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Scuderia Ferrari in Brescia before the 1957 MM start. #534 Collins/Klemantaski, #531 de Portago/Nelson, #417 Gendebien/Washer, #532 Von Trips and the privately entered Ferrari 500 Testa Rossa of Gino Munaron

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Piero Taruffi in the winning 335 engined Ferrari 315S. MM 1957. This very successful driver retired after winning the event then writing ‘The Technique of Motor Racing’, a rather good book! (Unattributed)

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De Portago and Peter Collins in colored beanie before the MM start. Louise Collins in the striped blouse at the rear (Louis Klementaski)

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de Portago and Nelson leave the Rome control in 4th place (Louis Klemantaski)

Photo Credits…

Louis Klemantaski Archive, Yves Debraine, G Cavara cutaway drawing

Tailpiece…

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An equally stunning shot as the one at the start of this article. It reflects the fanatical Italian crowd and their proximity to the cars. Its poignant for that reason as it is one of the last shots of ‘Fon’ de Portago before the fatal accident which took his and ten others lives. Ferrari 335S ‘0676’ Mille Miglia 1957. (Unattributed)

Finito…

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Stirling Moss, Vanwall VW10 correcting a delicate slide on the cobblestones of the Boavista Circuit, Portuguese Grand Prix 1958 (LAT Archive)

The Perils of Grand Prix Racing in the days of Yore…

Casually placed haybales the only barrier between the cobblestoned road surface, tramlines and decorative telephone poles, Sunday 24 August 1958. This was a very dangerous circuit even by the standards of the day.

The circuit was in Oporto, it began on the harbour front esplanade, continued onto the ‘Avenida da Boavista’, then through small neighbourhoods and back to the start/finish line. It was also used for the GP in 1960.

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Moss’ Vanwall leads Hawthorns’ Ferrari Dino , Behras’ BRM P 25 on the inside, then 2 more Vanwalls of Brooks and Lewis-Evans and the other Dino of  Von Trips..challenges of the circuit apparent (‘restos’)

50000 people attended the event held in treacherous conditions, the track damp after earlier rain.

It had been a tough couple of months for the motor racing world as Luigi Musso and Peter Collins died in Ferrari Dino’s in the French and German Grands’ Prix respectively.

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Graham Hill, Lotus 16 Climax, lands atop the haybales after a spin on lap 25, DNF. Hill made his Grand Prix debut in a Lotus 12 at Monaco that May, starting a long, wonderful, successful, ‘Triple Crown Winning’ career. His final GP was also at Monaco in 1975, unfortunately not qualifying (Pinterest)

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Gee Hill beached from either angle!

In a fantastic display of sportsmanship Stirling Moss intervened in a post race protest against Mike Hawthorn, who it was alleged had driven a short distance in the wrong direction on-circuit, having restarted his car. Moss advised the stewards Mike was on the footpath at the time, therefore not breaching the rules and keeping the points which ultimately won him the 1958 Drivers Championship by 1 point…from Moss.

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All the fun of the fair…Moss leads teammate Stuart Lewis-Evans through the Oporto suburbs. Moss won with Hawthorns Ferrari Dino 246 second and Lewis-Evans third (Pinterest)

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Tony Brooks and Stirling Moss swap notes during practice, note Brooks’ ‘kidney belt’ to cope with the rigors of the rough circuit(s) (‘restos’)

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Circuit of Boavista panorama…(‘restos’)

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This shot of Hawthorn amongst the tramlines shows the delicacy of car control required on that day given the combination of rain, cobblestones, slippery steel tram lines and the hard, narrow race tyres of the day! (‘restos’)

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Moss’ Vanwall leads Hawthorns Ferrari Dino 246 early in the race…Moss post race intervention in a protest about Hawthorns’ diqualification critial to him holding second place and the points which ultimately won him the 1958 Drivers Title from Moss (Pinterest)

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Moss victorious in Vanwall VW10 (Pinterest)

victors

Vanwall Team lap of honour…L>R Vandervell, waving Moss and Lewis-Evans (‘restos’)

Photo Credits…

LAT Archive, Pinterest

Many of theses shots are from a blog: restosdecoleccao.blogspot.com .Well worth a look even if your Spanish is not flash!

Etcetera…

roy

Roy Salvadori ponders the 2 litre Coventry Climax FPF engine of his ‘works’ Cooper T45, Roy was ninth, and last, Jack Brabham in the sister car seventh (‘restos’)

start

Start from the rear this time. #14 Brabham Cooper T45 Climax, # 4 Brooks Vanwall, # 10 Schell BRM P25, # 8 Behra BRM P25. Up front its Moss Vanwall, then Hawthorn Ferrari to the left of Moss, Lewis-Evans Vanwall outside on the right, and Von Trips Ferrari also right behind Lewis-Evans…the nose just appearing in shot is one of the Maser 250F’s entered…Shelby, Bonnier or Maria de Filippis (‘restos’)

behra

Jean Behra BRM P25 ahead of Jack Brabhams’ Cooper T45 Climax, now at 2.2 litres capacity, and tiny in comparison to the BRM. Fourth and seventh respectively, a Vanwall, Brooks perhaps, following (Pinterest)

hawthorn oporto

Mike Hawthorn enroute to second place in his Ferrari Dino 246 (Pinterest)

moss 3

Moss’ Vanwall nose up under acceleration (Pinterest)

poster

Finito…

phil

Phil Hill turns his Ferrari Dino 246 into an open right hander on the prodigiously fast Ain Diab road circuit, Casablanca, Morocco 1958 . He finished third. (Unattributed)

Stirling Moss, Vanwall VW 57 and Mike Hawthorn, Ferrari 246 went to Morocco for the final round of the 1958 Championship, with Moss needing to win and set fastest lap and Hawthorn to finish no lower than third to take the title…

Morocco had recently gained its independence from Spain and used the race to help establish its global identity. The newly crowned King Mohammad V attended ‘Ain Diab’, a very fast, dangerous road circuit on public roads near Casablanca.

Moss took the lead, with Phil Hill also starting well. Hill waved teammate Hawthorn through to chase Moss with Brooks challenging in the other Vanwall. Moss set a new lap record, Ferrari slowing Hill to allow Hawthorn into second. Moss ran into Wolfgang Seidels’ Maserati 250F, damaging the Vanwalls nosecone, fut fortunately not the radiater core.

Tragedy struck on lap 42 when the engine in Stuart Lewis-Evans Vanwall blew, the cars rear wheels locked, careering into a small stand of trees. The vulnerable tail tank ruptured and caught fire, Lewis-Evans jumped out but was disoriented and headed away from fire marshalls who may have been able to minimise the terrible burns from his overalls and despite being flown home to the UK, he died in a specialist hospital six days later.

moroc

Stuart Lewis-Evans, Morocco 1958. His death robbed Britain of its great ‘coming-man’ (The Cahier Archive)

Moss won the race, and Hawthorn the Drivers Title. The Constructors Championship was won by Vanwall, a fitting reward for Tony Vandervell who had passionately supported the BRM program before setting out on his own, frustrated by Management By Committee…

Hawthorn shortly thereafter announced his retirement from racing, aged 29, and ‘dicing’ with Rob Walker on the Guildford Bypass not far from his home, crashed fatally in his Mark 2 Jag an horrific end to a tragic season for British Motor Racing.

moss

Stirling Moss on his way to Ain Diab victory in his Vanwall VW5,  1958 (Moss Archive)

moroc

Stunning Moroccan backdrop…Hawthorn 1958, Ferrari Dino 246 (Unattributed)

moss morocco 5

Moss’ car survived the heat despite the damaged Vanwall nosecone, having hit Seidels Maser ‘up the chuff’ taking the win, and Constructors Championship for Vanwall. (Unattributed)

Vanwall Racing Cars…

cutaway

Lotus’ Colin Chapman designed the car using a multi-tubular space frame chassis, aerodynamics by Frank Costin. 4 cylinder DOHC, Bosch fuel injected engine developing circa 280-290BHP depending upon fuel. 5 speed Ferrari derived gearbox, Goodyear disc brakes. Front suspension by upper and lower wishbones and coil spring/damper units. De Dion rear suspension and from 1957 ‘Chapman Struts’

Tony Vandervell…

Vandervell bearings ad

Guy Anthony ‘Tony’ Vandervell started his independent race program with a series of Ferraris modified by his company and called ‘Thinwall Specials’, he had become frustrated with the lack of progress of the BRM Project, of which he was a founder shareholder.

BRM V16 Vandervell ad

Vandervell Products ad in the ‘BRM Ambassador for Britain’ booklet 1949. (Stephen Dalton Collection)

The Ferraris raced mainly in British Formula Libre events, the main opposition the BRM V16 which was essentially too late for F1 before the formula changed rendering it obsolete.

Vandervell was restless and wanted to race in the new 2 Litre F1 of 1952/3.

thinwall

Mike Hawthorn in the Ferrari 375 V12 ‘Thinwall Special’, Turnberry 1953. Tony Vandervell is to the left of the mechanic (Unattributed)

vanwall goodwood

Peter Collins, then 22, at the wheel of the original Vanwall ’01’, ‘Goodwood Trophy’ in September 1954. He qualified and finished 2nd to the Moss Maser 250F. (Louis Klemantaski)

In 1954 he started building Vanwalls… the name an acronym of his Acton based ‘Thinwall’ bearing company and his surname. The chassis was designed by Coopers’ Owen Maddock, and built by them.

Vandervell was a Director of Norton and impressed by their very successful 500cc single. The engine was  designed by Norton designer Leo Kuzmicki and was essentially 4 Norton single cylinder barrells integrated ‘en-bloc’ with added water jackets.

This DOHC cylinder head used twin inclined valves in each combustion chamber, and also utilised motor cycle style hairpin valve springs. It was then married to the bottom end of a Rolls Royce ‘B40 military engine’, the crankcase cast in aluminium rather than the originals iron.

Laystall provided the crank and Bosch the fuel injection system.

vanwakll engine

Vanwall 4 cylinder, gear driven DOHC design a marriage of contemporary Norton head design and a rugged Rolls Royce ‘bottom end’ as per the text. Of note are the hairpin valve springs, train of gears to drive the cams and auxiliaries and high pressure fuel injection pump, both at the front of the engine. (Vic Berris)

Vanwall engine

Vanwall engine 1958. (Jesse Alexander)

The car made its debut at the 1954 International Trophy at Silverstone, the Goodyear disc brakes proving successful but the cars front suspension was unsatisfactory. The engine progressed from 2237cc to 2490cc .The car was raced by Mike Hawthorn and Peter Collins who wrote it off in Spanish GP at Barcelona.

Vandervell ordered  four chassis based on the Cooper design which picked up Ferrari suspension and steering, the team by that time having plenty of Ferrari parts!

1954

1955 Season…

hawt

Mike Hawthorn in the Cooper designed Vanwall chassis VW 55, Monaco GP 1955, DNF with throttle linkage problems in the race won by Trintignats Ferrari Squalo 625 (Unattributed)

The four cars were to be raced in 1955 by Ken Wharton, Harry Schell, Desmond Titterington and Mike Hawthorn. Schell won four minor British events but it was clear a lighter, stiffer and more sophisticated chassis was needed to make the most of the competitive engine.

Vandervells staff modified the basic Cooper frame at which point Colin Chapman was introduced to Vandervell via the Vanwall transport driver, Derek Wootton, to look at the frame. Vandervell was impressed with Chapmans knowledge and track record and signed him on.

Colin Chapmans 1956 Vanwall Design…

dutch

Moss in the Dutch GP winning VW10. Shot shows extreme attention to aero for the day by Frank Costin. Borranis’ at front Moss’ preference for driver feel but cast alloy wheels adopted in 1958 to save weight. This Vanwall, with 2 GP wins survives today. (Unattributed)

A defining moment in Vanwalls’ future success was the choice of Colin Chapman, then an up and coming racer/designer/builder of Lotus sports cars. Chapman designed a modern space-frame chassis and engaged aerodynamicist Frank Costin to design the gorgeous, low drag ultra-slippery body.

Chapman used the 1955 double wishbones and coil spring front suspension, Ferrari derived gearbox layout and brakes but laid out new De Dion rear axle geometry using a Watt linkage for lateral location whilst retaining the transverse leaf spring.

The space frame chassis featured round section top and bottom longerons in 1.5 inch diameter. At the front a sheet metal fabrication provided a cross member for anchorages for the coil and wishbone suspension setup. The frame was complex and rigid but weighed only 87.5 pounds.

vanwall front

High quality of forgings and fabrication of spaceframe chassis evident. Front cross-member visible, steering arm, top link, radius rod, coil spring/damper unit and Goodyear patented disc brakes (Vandervell Products/The GP Library)

Whilst the De Dion rear end was retained the suspension geometry was changed to allow much more negative camber at the rear to enhance the loaded outside tyres adhesion. For 1957 the transverse leaf spring was replaced by ‘Chapman Struts’ a coaxial coil spring and locating link.

Vanwall rear end

Vanwall rear end 1957 with Chapman struts, coil springs and Armstrong dampers.De Dion rear axle with Watts linkage. 5 speed ‘box in unit with diff, see the ducts for the disc brakes. The tail tank is connected to auxiliary tanks mounted alongside the chassis. (Automobile Year 5)

The most striking feature of the car was its Costin designed, teardrop shaped body. Painstaking attention was devoted to underbody fairing, the elliptical body section designed to minimise deflection in cross winds and drag.

Flush ‘NACA’ ducts were used, and the distinctive tall headrest faired a 39 gallon fuel tank, two subsidiary 15 gallon tanks were located low on each side of the scuttle.

Engine development continued under Harry Weslakes’ direction and the best of everyting was used throughout; Bosch fuel injection, Goodyear disc brakes, Mahle pistons, Porsche gears, Ferrari designed gearbox cum final drive…Vandervell didn’t get hung up on the whole ‘only British BRM thing’, simply buying the best when he could not readily or cost-effectively build it.

Schell was joined by Maurice Trintignant that season but Moss raced the car at the non-championship Silverstone International Trophy, as Maserati, Moss’ team that year had not entered. Moss set fastest time and won the race.

In 1956 the cars showed great speed but poor reliability and ordinary high speed roadholding. For 1957 they needed reliability and drivers capable of fully exploiting the cars performance.

french 1957

Ultra slippery shape of De Havilland aerodynamicist Frank Costins’ body shown to good effect in this shot of Stuart Lewis-Evans at Rouen 1957. Practice for the French GP , he retired with steering problems. Brooks and Moss absences gave him his chance in several events, he was quick and reliable, Vandervell signing him as the teams third driver (Unattributed)

1957 and 1958…

Vanwall cutaway drawing 1957

James Allington period cutaway drawing of the car as raced in 1957 and published in ‘Automobile Year 5’.

brooks

Tony Brooks, winner of the Belgian GP at Spa 1958. Pictured here at Eau Rouge. Chassis is VW 5 the most successful ever British front-engined GP car with 5 wins to its credit. Subsequently dismantled and rebuilt around a fresh frame. (Unattributed)

The ‘Chapman Struts’ were fitted and Fichtel & Sachs dampers, the engines were teased to develop 285BHP at 7300RPM and Moss signed to drive…with Tony Brooks as number 2. Moss tested BRM, Connaught and Vanwall cars at both Silverstone and Oulton Park, on the same days before making his decision about which car to drive in 1957..

The Vanwall finally broke through, winning the British GP at Aintree in the hands of Moss…and Brooks sharing cars. Lewis-Evans, the young British 500cc F3 star, joined the team in Monaco when Moss was ill, the team now had great depth, Moss won in Pescara and Monza, the Vanwalls qualifying 1,2, and 3! ahead of all the Red Cars.

Vanwall Streamliner Reims 1957

Vanwall tested this ‘Streamliner’, chassis VW6, at Reims in 1957 in practice. The changes were not successful the increase in weight and ‘sighting’ out of the car not greater than the increase in top speed. (Automobile Year)

Alcohol fuels were banned for 1958 causing especially big problems for Vanwall and BRM who both used ‘big banger’ four cylinder engines which needed the cooling effect of the alcohol. As a consequence the engines power dropped from 290BHP on alcohol to 278BHP on ‘pump fuel’ in 1958.

Changes to the engine involved investigation of cam profiles, three and four valve heads and water injection. Changes to port shapes, valve timing, and metering cams was finally involved. The Ferrari Dino was reckoned to have circa 286BHP but Italian dynos’ have always been a bit ‘eager’…

Weight saving was investigated but the cars were already light, cast alloy wheels were adopted but often Borrani wires were preferred especially at the front where they gave greater driver ‘feel’.

Drivers were the same as 1957, with Moss winning in Holland, Portugal and Morocco, and Brooks in Belgium, Germany and Italy. As stated earlier whilst Moss missed out on the drivers title to Hawthorn by one point, Vanwall won the inaugural Constructors Championship.

germany

Stirling Moss German GP 1958, Vanwall VW10, DNF magneto , teammate Tony Brooks took the win. Vanwall VW4  (Unattributed)

End of The Beginning of Dominance of The Green Cars…

moss and vandervell

Moss and Vandervell share the spoils of victory, Pescara GP, Italy 1958 (Unattributed)

For Vandervell it was ‘mission accomplished’ and whilst Vanwall raced on they did so without the full campaign of previous years. Vandervell took the death of Lewis-Evans very hard and his own health was failing. He announced the teams withdrawal from full-time competition, the team racing four times in the final three years, its swansong the rear engined Intercontinental Formula car competing in May 1961 at Silverstone.

vanwall french

Tony Brooks raced the Vanwall VW11 in the 1960 French GP at Reims on 3 July. He qualified the new low-line but now outdated front-engined car 13th, retiring on lap 7 with a vibration from the rear of the car. That year Brooks drove most of the season in British Racing Partnership year old Cooper T51 Climaxes and was prodigiously fast amongst newer Cooper T53/Lotus 18’s but was keen to give the Vanwall a try. VW11 not raced again. (unattributed)

vanwall vw11

Naked Vanwall VW11 in the Reims paddock 1960. Car a new chassis built from VW5 components in 1960. Car featured double wishbone rear suspension and Colotti 5 speed gearbox, the whole rear end designed by Colotti. Small, compact ‘box mounted behind the diff, drive running in at the bottom and exiting higher giving a low propshaft and seating position. Mid-ship location of fuel tanks made the car wider than the earlier cars. Wheels alloy and Cooper like. Engine reputedly developed around 280bhp. (unattributed)

vw14

Vanwall VW14 built for 1961 Intercontinental Formula. Fitted with 2.6 litre Vanwall engine. Auction photos. (Hall&Hall)

surtees

John Surtees in VW14 during the Silverstone Intercontinental May meeting. ’tis a pity there is not more of the car in this shot, period photos of it are so rare! Nice smile all the same (Getty)

Vanwall VW14

Vanwall VW14, the very last car. John Surtees at the Silverstone International Trophy in May 1961. He qualified the 2.6 litre engined ‘Intercontinental Formula’ car 6th, ran second, spun and finished 5th in Vanwalls’ last race as a factory team. (unattributed)

Etcetera Vanwall…

Click on this site for a chassis/year summary of cars built and raced;

http://8w.forix.com/vanwalls.html

Vanwall VW10 front

Vanwall VW10 ‘stripped’. Chapman spaceframe chassis, 4 cylinder DOHC engine, tail and cockpit fuel tanks, under-seat transaxle, this ’57 car has Chapman struts at the rear. (Doug Nye ‘History of The Grand Prix Car’

Vanwall VW10 rear

Vanwall VW10. Ferrari derived transaxle, cockpit layout, rear and twin side fuel tanks and radius rods to locate rear suspension fore/aft all visible. (Doug Nye “History of The Grand Prix Car’

vanwall shadow

 

vanwall types

Vanwall VW6 Reims

The Reims ‘Streamliner’ chassis VW6 tried in practice only, French GP 1957. (Automobile Year)

cockpit

Cockpit by the standards of the day confortable, swivelling face level vents to keep the driver alive in the carefully faired space…gearbox notoriously difficult to use. Car very fast but not as forgiving to Moss as a 250F. car needed the best to get the best from it. This is chassis VW9 (Unattributed)

manza 57

The Vanwall Team in the Monza paddock 1957. Moss won the Italian GP in ‘VW5/57’ (Unattributed)

col

fang

This shot shows the relaitve height of the Vanwall, which was very tall, the driver sitting atop the drive-shaft. Fangio is in his last grand prix in a Maser 250F ‘Piccolo’ and finished fourth. Moss in Vw 10 was second in the race won by Hawthorns’ Ferrari Dino 246. french GP Reims 1958 (The Cahier Archive)

tea

A spot of tea at what appears to be a Silverstone test session, circa 1957 . Moss up. (Unattributed)

Etcetera…Morocco

hawthorn morocco

Mike Hawthorn, Ferrari Dino 246 , Morocco 1958 (Unattributed)

hill g

Graham Hill finished sixteenth and last in the Lotus 16 Climax, teammate Cliff Allison tenth in the earlier Lotus 12 Climax. Lotus 16 also designed by Colin Chapman and was called the ‘Mini Vanwall’, the same concepts applied by Chapman..and Frank Costin who did the aerodynamics. Car much lower then Vanwall, the engine ‘canted’ in an offset way to allow driveshaft to be locted beside the driver rather than sit atop it. But the Coopers had arrived, the Lotus 16 an ‘also ran’ in 1959. Lotus 18, when Chapman applied himself to the mid-engined approach then vaulted forward… (Unattributed)

masten

Masten Gregory was a great sixth in the by then ageing Maserati 250F (Unattributed)

stu

Stuart Lewis-Evans Vanwall VW (57) Morocco 1958 (Unattributed)

poster

Photo and Reference Credits…

The Cahier Archive, Stirling Moss Archive, The GP Library, Walter Wright Illustrations, Louis Klemantaski, The Autocar, James Allington cutaway drawing, Jesse Alexander, Automobile Year 5, Stephen Dalton Collection, Vic Berris, Hall & Hall, Getty Images

‘The History of The Grand Prix Car’ Doug Nye

Finito…